Psychology 2035A/B Chapter Notes -Ingratiation, Collectivism, Individualism
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Chp. 6 Terms
Basking in Self-reflected Glory: tendency to enhance one’s image by publicly
announcing one’s association with those who are successful.
Collectivism: putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one’s identity in
terms of the groups to which one belongs.
Downward Social Comparison: the defensive tendency to compare oneself with
someone whose troubles are more serious than one’s own.
Explanatory Style: tendency to use similar causal attributions for a wide variety of
events in one’s life.
External Attributions: ascribing the causes of behaviour to situational demands and
environmental constraints rather than personal.
Impression Management: usually conscious efforts to influence the way others think of
Individualism: putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in
terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships.
Ingratiation: efforts to make oneself likable to others.
Internal Attributions: ascribging the causes of behaviour to personal distributions,
traits, abilities and feelings rather than external events.
Possible Selves: one’s conception about the kind of person one might become in the
Public Self: an image presented to others in social interactions.
Reference Group: a set of people who are used as a gauge in making social
Self-attributions: inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behaviour.
Self-concept: collection of beliefs about one’s basic nature, unique qualities and typical
Self-defeating Behaviours: seemingly intentional acts that thwart a persons self-interest.
Self-discrepancy: the mismatching of self-perceptions.
Self-enhancement: the tendency to maintain positive views about oneself.
Self-esteem: one’s overall assessment of one’s worth as a person; the evaluative
component of the self concept.
Self-handicapping: tendency to sabotage one’s performance to provide an excuse for
Self-monitoring: degree to which people attend to and control the impressions they make
Self-regulation: directing and controlling one’s behaviours.
Self-serving Bias: tendency to attribute one’s successes to personal factors and one’s
failures to situational factors.
Social Comparison Theory: idea that people need to compare themselves with others in
order to gain insight into their own behaviour.
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