Basking in self-reflected glory: tendency to enhance one"s image by publicly announcing one"s association with those who are successful. Collectivism: putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one"s identity in terms of the groups to which one belongs. Downward social comparison: the defensive tendency to compare oneself with someone whose troubles are more serious than one"s own. Explanatory style: tendency to use similar causal attributions for a wide variety of events in one"s life. External attributions: ascribing the causes of behaviour to situational demands and environmental constraints rather than personal. Impression management: usually conscious efforts to influence the way others think of one. Individualism: putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one"s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships. Ingratiation: efforts to make oneself likable to others. Internal attributions: ascribging the causes of behaviour to personal distributions, traits, abilities and feelings rather than external events.