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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Text notes

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Psychology 2035A/B
Doug Hazlewood

Chapter 3 Stress and its effects The nature of stress y Stress can be a stimulus that presents difficult demands y Response of physiological arousal by a troublesome event y its neither stimulus or response o Its a special stimulusresponse transaction in which one feels threatened or experiences loss or harm o Defined as any circumstances that threatens or are perceived to threaten ones well being and thereby tax ones coping abilities y 13 of Americans say they live with extreme stress obelieved their stress had increased over the last 5 years y Aftermath of natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes induce a higher rate of psychological problems and physical illnesses y Other everyday events like waiting in line misplacing something bills are also stressful y A major stressful event such as going through a divorce can trigger a cascade of minor stressors y Minor stressors dont necessarily cause minor effects y Scores on a scale measuring daily hassles were more strongly related to participants mental health than the scores on a scale measuring major life events were o Can have a cumulative or additive effect y Stress lies in the eyes of the beholder y Events that are stressful for one person could be routine for another y Primary Appraisal o Initial evaluation of whether an event is1irrelevant to you2 Relevant but not threatening3 Stressful y Secondary appraisal o Evaluation of your coping resources and options for dealing with the stress y Stress lies in the eyes of the beholdery Many kinds of stress come from environmental circumstances that ind share w othersy Ambient Stresso Chronic environmental conditions thatalthough not urgent are negatively valued and place adaptive demands on ppl y Association btw chronic exposure to high levels of noise and elevated blood pressure among childreny Crowding is another example of environmental stress y Excessive noisegreater release of stress hormones y Stress for those that live in areas that are prone to natural disasters like those living near a powerplant y Urban poverty and violence as another source 1y Stress is influenced by culture y Modernization and urbanization have been a source of stress o Cultural changeShifting values and customs y Ethnic cleansing y Racial discrimination negatively affects mental health and well being y Verbal insults neg evaluations avoidance denial of equal treatment threats of aggression y PERCEIVED discrimination has been linked to greater psychological distress y Acculturation o Changing to adapt to a new culture o New immigrantsMajor source of stress related to reduced well being o Discrepancy btw what ind expect before immigrating and what they actually experience Major sources of stress y Acute Stressors o Threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear end point o Waiting for a medical report or flooding in your house y Chronic Stressors o Threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit o Financial strains depts hostile boss caring for a sick person over a long period of time y Anticipatory Stressors o Upcoming or future events that are perceived to be threatening o We anticipate impact of an event even if it hasnt happened yet o Bad grades we could get a breakup that could or could not occur o Affects psychologically and physically y Four major sources of Stress o Frustration o Internal conflict o Change o Pressure y Frustration o Occurs in a situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted o When you want something and cant have it o Traffic jams o Elicit anger and increase levels of stress o Frustration leads to aggression o Failures and losses o Affected by environmental stress o Most are brief and insignificant2
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