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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Theories and Models of Health Behaviour Change.docx

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Psychology 2036A/B
Sarah Khan

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Chapter 4 Theories and Models of Health Behaviour Change Section I Theories and Models of Health Behaviour Change Expectancy Value Theory (EVT) - States that two forces motivate behaviour: o The anticipated or expected outcomes of the behaviour o The value assigned to the outcome - According to the EVT, every behaviour has a consequence - Individuals anticipate these consequences and assign a positive or negative value to the outcomes - The anticipates consequence of a behaviour and the value assigned to it are based on an individual’s past experience with the behaviour and its outcome - These influence the decision to engage or not engage in similar behaviours in the future - The EVT describes a cognitive process whereby individuals assess their behaviours and evaluate the consequences based on the values they assign to the consequences - Con: the EVT is designed to explain only one behaviour o The EVT’s inability to account for more than one factor that influences behaviour is a limitation of the theory - Solution? Matching law - Matching Law: decisions to engage in a specific behaviour are influenced, in part, by reinforcements for the intended behaviour, as well as reinforcements for alternate behaviours o If the reinforcement for an alternate behaviour is greater than the reinforcement for the intended behaviour, then the likelihood is greater that an individual will perform the alternate behaviour Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) Albert Bandura Learning Processes - Social cognitive theory (social learning theory): cognitive processes are critical to the acquisition and regulation of behaviours - Individuals learn from the consequences of their behaviours  learned behavioural consequences - Consequences are communicated through “response information” cues that are acquired in one of four ways: o 1. Direct experiences – individual engaging in a behaviour that results in a specific behavioural outcome o 2. Vicarious experiences – learning that occurs as a result of observing the outcomes of another individual o 3. Persuasory learning – learning that occurs from the judgements expressed by other about specific behaviours  Requires no action on anyone’s part; a wholly cognitive learning process o 4. Inferred learning – learning derived from a person’s own knowledge  Application of logic or rules allows an individual to posit an outcome without having to engage in the act  Also requires no action  Cognitive process of deduction allows us to derive a set of probably behaviours and their corresponding behavioural outcomes based on our knowledge of both the behaviours and our application of rules Self-Efficacy - Self-efficacy: a person’s conviction that his or her actions will produce the expected outcomes - Outcome expectancies: our expectation of positive or negative outcomes resulting from out performance - Self-efficacy characterizes our judgement about our ability to perform a specific task - Our strong belief in our ability to perform a behaviour will increase the probability of performing the behaviour - Efficacy expectations vary on 3 dimensions o Magnitude (level of difficulty) o Generality (pertaining to the level of mastery needed to accomplish a specific task) o Strength (strength of the expectation) Reciprocal Determinism - Reciprocal determinism: behaviour must be views in the context of environmental events (E) and personal factors (P) that influence behaviours (B) - Each of these variables interact significantly with the other two - Simultaneous interaction of all three variables makes it almost impossible to isolate one of the variables to test its effect on the other two Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) Ajzen - Builds on the theory of reasoned action (TRA) Theory of Reasoned Action - States than an individual’s behaviour is determined by his or her intentions - Intentions are influences by : o Attitudes about the behaviour – positive or negative? o Subjective norms – the opinion of those who are important to the subject Similarities between EVT and TRA - EVT identified anticipated outcomes and values as determinants of human behaviours - TRA identifies attitudes and subjective norms as the principal factors influencing behaviours - Attitudes and behaviours reflect values and values are influenced by subjective norms - Support for TRA focuses ability of the theory to predict the intention to act but not the actual behaviour - TRA cannot explain addictive, habitual, or involuntary behaviours o i.e. smokers do not INTEND to put themselves at higher risk of throat or lung cancer - Spontaneous behaviours cannot be explained either because intent implies some level of thought and purposefulness Theory of Planned Behaviour - Includes the concept of perceived behavioural control - Suggests that peoples’ belief that they possess the resources and the opportunities needed to perform a behaviour is directly related to their perceived control over their behaviour - The greater the perceived behaviour control, the greater the likelihood that behaviour will be performed - Similar to Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy – the belief that one has the ability to achieve the intende
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