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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Global Communicable and Chronic Disease.docx

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Psychology 2036A/B
Sarah Khan

Chapter 3 Global Communicable and Chronic Disease Drug­Resistant Tuberculosis: Andrew Speaker - Speaker was under for pulmonary tuberculosis and advised not to travel - Tuberculosis: a communicable disease that can be spread when TB germs (bacilli) are propelled from a contagious person’s cough, sneeze, talk, or spit, sending the TB germs airborne to other persons within the vicinity - Speaker’s strain of TB was resistant to primary and secondary antibiotics - The CDC recommended that Speaker consider isolation or quarantine to prevent spreading the disease to others - Speaker disregarded this recommendation and flew from Atlanta to Paris to Greece to Rome to Prague, the Czech Republic and then to Montreal - Speaker was eventually detained in New York and held in federal isolation for treatment at Bellevue Hospital - International travel is one way in which communicable disease can be transported to different countries - The ability of communicable disease to infect large numbers of people in many countries can create global health problems of concern to many health professionals - Global health problems give health psychologists an opportunity to study and tests the effects of difference health determinants in a variety of cultures, environments, health policies and health systems on individual health outcomes Chronic diseases: illnesses that result in lingering health problems and that limit an individual’s daily functioning Developed countries: economically prosperous countries Developing countries: people in less economically advantaged countries Section I Global Health Problems Communicable Diseases: Human-to-Human Transmission Epidemics and Pandemics - Athenian plague o First documented communicable disease o 430 BCE Greece o Symptoms: fever, inflammation of eyes, tongue, or throat, GI symptoms, rashes o Death usually occurred within 7-8 days of contracting the disease o Ebola virus? Glanders? - Epidemic: a disease that affects large numbers of a population within a geographic area - Pandemic: diseases that spread through large geographic regions of the world or occur worldwide - Haemorrhagic plague aka Black Death o 1347-1350 CE o 25 million deaths in the first 2 years o 7 reoccurrences over time o Total death toll: >137 million - HIV/AIDS virus o Origin is still disputed o Method of transmission is through human contact o High-risk sexual behaviours (multiple sex partners, unprotected sex, sharing of hypodermic needles) are the primary means of transmission Tuberculosis - Communicable disease: can be transmitted from one living organism to another o Transmission can be direct (person to person) or indirect (through environmental agents) and may involve direct contact with another person’s saliva, nasal secretions or feces - The US has the lowest TB infection rate in the world – but it is still a problem (i.e. Andrew Speaker) o Increase of TB from 2000-2005 according to WHO o Due to: drug resistant strains, HIV/AIDS, and an increase in the number of refugees due to wars, famines, and natural disasters - Researchers have shown that a person with an active case of TB (someone who is untreated or ineffectively treated) can infect ~1 person/month - A person with a latent case of TB will test positive for the bacteria but will not show signs of illness, will not be sick, and cannot communicate the disease to others - Based on research, immigration is slowing the decline of TB rates in the US Childhood Viral Diseases - Examples: Measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox, diphtheria, whooping cough, polio - Most children in developed countries are medically protected from such childhood viral diseases - Preventable diseases are of special interest to health psychologists because they suggest an opportunity to improve health outcomes through changes in individual behaviours or through improving access to health care - Measles o Viral infection o Respiratory illness and death o Most serious of the preventable childhood illnesses o Most cases of children in developing countries end in death o Due to the high mortality rate associated with measles in developing countries, its prevention is considered the highest medical priority for children o 25% of all child deaths can be attributed to measles (WHO) - Chicken Pox (varicella zoster virus) o Uncomfortable but rarely serious when contracted during childhood o A person who has the disease is immune for life - Poliomyelitis (polio) o Highly contagious viral disease that damages cells in the spinal cord and specifically attacks the muscle-controlling nerves o Only results in flu-like symptoms in 90% of cases - Incidences of childhood viral illnesses are infrequent in the US primarily because children with access to health care receive vaccines that immunize them against the disease - Vaccines are medicines that contain a small amount of the virus (dead or alive) from the disease in question o Introducing a controlled amount of a virus to the body encourages and the body’s immune system to build antibodies o Antibodies are proteins that identify and destroy bacteria and viruses that are foreign to the body o The immune system then retains some antibodies to recognize and destroy the virus if an individual becomes exposed to it at a later time o By teaching the body to recognize and destroy a controlled amount of the virus, vaccines are able to protect or immunize the vaccinated individual from future occurrences Effectiveness of Vaccines - US: children by the age of 6 must have received vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox, diphtheria, whooping cough, polio and other infectious disease usually contracted in childhood o Age 6 is when children start school - By vaccinating children, the exposure risk for adults is reduced - Cultural or religious beliefs, fear of the consequences of vaccines, the cost of vaccines, access to health care and vaccine programs all determine the likelihood that a child or an adult may contract a contagious viral infection Recurring Diseases - Examples: cholera, malaria, and dracunculiasis (guinea worm) - Transmitted to humans from insects or bacteria that breed in unsanitary environmental conditions - For many recurrent diseases, environmental conditions are a predisposing factor that contributes to the disease Cholera - Few people contract cholera in developed countries - Bacteria: vibro cholera o Found in contaminated food or water or in human fecal matter - Intestinal infection - 80% of cases: mild or moderate symptoms (diarrhea and stomach cramping) - 20% of cases: severe diarrhea cause dehydration, kidney failure, or death - Closely linked to poor environmental management and unsafe water conditions - Cholera is a preventable disease best addressed through health policy interventions Malaria (antibiotic: Artemisinin) - Hot, human weather and large bodies of stagnant water offer an ideal breeding ground for mosquitos – can carry the malaria virus - Parasite: plasmodium o Infected humans but then it was transmitted from person to person with the aid of female anopheles mosquito o When the anopheles mosquito bites an infected person, it injects a small amount of fluid that causes the skin irritation associated with mosquito bites o It then withdraws a small amount of blood from the infected person o The anopheles mosquito the moves on to its next victim o When biting the next victim, some of the blood from the first person is injected into the newly bitten person along with the fluid - The anopheles mosquito essentially transmits malaria from one person to another - Antimalarial medication is available in addition to precautions such as repellant, protective clothing, and protecting bed nets Parasites - Raw/undercooked meat pork may contains cestodiasis parasite (tapeworm) - Can live in the intestines of animals such as cattle or pigs - Infected beef may contain taenia saginata - Infected pork may contain taenia solium - Capable of causing diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss - Can cause brain damage when left untreated Chronic Disease - Chronic diseases: long-term (3-6 months or longer) complex illnesses that can be controlled by not cured - Main health concern for developed countries - “disease of affluence”; “western disease” - Examples: arthritis, asthma, cancer, chronic heart disease, chronic renal disease, chronic respiratory disease, depression, diabetes, osteoporosis, stroke - Symptoms may occur intermittently or they may be continuous and worsen over time - Leading cause of death worldwide in developing and developed countries - Research shows that people with infrequent or irregular medical care have a higher mortality rate associated with chronic illnesses than people with a regular source of care of medical treatment - Higher death rates due to chronic illnesses in developing countries could be caused, in part, by an individual’s inability to afford health care or to a nation’s inability to provide medical care to its neediest citizens Causes of Chronic Diseases - 3 principles causes of chronic illnesses: unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and tobacco use - Main determinants of chronic illnesses are the choices people make about their diets, their activities, and their habits - Confounding factors: o
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