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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Cardiovascular Disease.docx
Chapter 9 Cardiovascular Disease.docx

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School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2036A/B
Professor
Sarah Khan
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 9 Cardiovascular Disease Section I: The Heart and its Functions Structure - The heart circulates blood to all parts of the body - Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to the organs and take carbon dioxide away for the lungs to expel Superior/inferior vena cava  right atrium  right ventricle  pulmonary artery  lungs  pulmonary vein  left atria  left ventricle  aorta Function - A system of inlet valves open and close to help direct blood in and around the heart and to prevent back flow - “lub-dub” sound is a result in valves closing - Lub o Produced by closing of tricuspid valve (between RA and RV) or the mitral valve (between PV and LA) o Represents sound of diastole (heart filling with blood) - Dub o Atria and ventricles contract o Blood pumped from RV into the PA o Aortic valves open to allow blood pumped out by LV o Systole – contraction of heart - Blood pressure = measure of heart health o Systolic/diastolic Section II: Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular disease – a group of disorders of the heart or circulatory system - Cardio = heart - Vascular = vessels - Atherosclerosis o Athero = paste o Sclerosis = hardening o Deposition of fats, cholesterol, calcium, plaque in the arteries 1. Plaque narrows the passageways of arteries and reduces the volume of blood flowing to or from the heart. Reduction in blood flow can damage the heart. 2. A normal artery is flexible – allow blood to flow easily through the vessels. Formation of plaque hardens the vessel and reduces flexibility 3. A buildup of plaque is cause by a diet high in fats and cholesterol, and low in fiber Coronary Artery Disease - More common type of cardiovascular heart disease - Leading cause of heart attacks - Arteries become partially or completely obstructed - Less blood blow through arteries  less blood to heart and organs - Decreased blood flow  chest pain (angina pectoris) and shortness of breath - Heart attack = myocardial infarction - CAD is preventable - Diet, lack of exercise, smoking, alcohol consumption = modifiable risk factors - Environmental factors (social norms and cultures) in addition to individual differences and familial practices, can reinforce unhealthy diets and behaviours, impeding change - Knowledge and access to information are needed to make informed choice that will increase the likelihood of adopting healthy behaviours Cardiac Arrest - Cardiac arrest is caused by ventricular fibrillation – abnormal heart rhythm that occurs when the heart fails to pump blood to other organs - Heart’s rhythm is determined by sinus nodes – cluster of cells in the RA the serves as a pacemaker for the heart - Node sends electrical currents through the heart, synchronizing the heart rate and pumping blood to other organs - Interruption of this signal can lead to sudden cardiac arrest - In 80% of cases, cardiac arrest is due to a history of coronary artery disease o Interruption of blood blow to the heart can interfere with the heart’s ability to send electrical impulses - Cardiac arrest ≠ heart attack o Cardiac arrest = condition that renders a person unconscious and is fatal unless the heart is jolted back into its normal rhythm - Cardiac arrests are not always fatal – if heart can be restarted in a timely way so that it can resume circulation of blood and oxygen to the body, chance of survival is good o Chance of surviving a cardiac arrest after 8 minutes is poor - 2 processes that can be used to restart the heart o 1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) o 2. Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) - CPR o Stimulates the heart of the person to restart its beating o Provides oxygen to the person to ensure the lungs remain inflated and oxygen can enter the blood - AED o Portable electrical device with two pads that send an electric charge to the heart when placed on a person’s chest o The charge is meant to mimic the electrical charge of the heart and to restart the circulation process Stroke - AKA cerebrovascular disease - Affect the vessels that carry blood and oxygen to the brain - Stroke can be ischemic (interruption of blood flow to the brain) or hemorrhagic (rupture of a vessel in the brain) - Hypertension – excessive force of blood pumping through the blood vessels o Can prompt a hemorrhagic stroke Hypertension - AKA high blood pressure - Systolic pressure and diastolic pressure are higher than normal blood pressure ranges - Normal = 120mmHg/80 mmHg - Hypertension can damage heart muscle - Hypertensive patients will show signs of an enlarged heart o Heart cannot work as efficiently o Increased BP indicate greater resistance of by the heart - “silent killer” – hard to detect; nonspecific symptoms - More specific symptoms – headache, heart palpitations, sudden and unexplainable nosebleeds – occur later - High BP can lead to damage to the heart, kidneys, and arteries - Can measure hypertension using a sphygmomanometer or a stethoscope Essential and Secondary Hypertension - Essential (primary) hypertension o Most common form of hypertension o Idiosyncratic o Consistent HBP over time o Genetics believed to be a cause o Other factors include generalized stress and stressful events - Secondary hypotension o Caused by health inhibiting factors – high fat and calorie diets, lack of exercise, smoking, lack of exercise Section III: Psychosocial Factors and Cardiovascular Disease Stress - A psychological factor of hypertension - Associated between stress and hypertension is the strongest when the stressful event is persistent - The prolonged effect of psychological stress with little ability to change the environment can increase hypertension - A single stressful event can have long lasting effects as well - i.e. PTSD - Stress experience over time in response to recurring stress-inducing situations and stress experienced as a result of a one-time event can both lead to hypertension Ethnicity - Hypertension is prevalent among African Americans o Not due to genetics – due to common culture behaviours (i.e. preferred foods) and individual factors (weight, environmental stressors) - Cultural practices, not genetics, are what predispose an ethnicity to certain diseases Perceived Racism - An environmental factor - Belief that another person’s actions or words are intended as prejudicial, discriminatory, or demeaning toward people of a specific race or ethnicity - Relationship between racism, coping and blood pressure o Men with greater success in their jobs who reported perceived racism at work and who used persistent coping strategies to address the racism in the environment were significantly more likely to have higher diastolic BP - Cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) – the body’s return to a baseline blood pressure and heart rate at the conclusion of a stressful event o More reliable measure of stress o Lepore: HR and BP of black women after experiencing perceived racism were significantly higher than those of the whi
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