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Chapter 1

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Western University
Psychology 2040A/B
Ian Mac Donald

Chapter 1: Introduction to Developmental Psychology and Research Strategies What is development? Systematic continuities and changes between conception and death -maturation (heredity influences on aging process) and learning (change in behaviour due to experience) drive development Goals of development: -describe (normative vs. ideographic) -explain (why do individs behave differently?) -optimize (apply research findings to real world) Stages of chronological development: -prenatal period -infancy and toddler period -preschool period -middle childhood -adolescence -young adulthood -middle age -old age Ancient Period (Roma, Carthage, Sparta) -active infanticide -family possessions Medieval Times -treatment of children debated by scientists -miniature adults? -distinct phases of life? 17 and 18 century philosophers -Thomas Hobbes: original sin, child has a passive role -Jean Jacques Rousseau: innate purity, active role -John Locke: tabula rasa, passive role Early Studies of Children -baby biographers: recorded development of own child (Darwin) -problems: lack of objectivity and no generalizability -G Stanley Hall and Sigmund Freud are founders of discipline -Stanley: questionnaire method, identified adolescence as unique period -Freud: psychoanalytic theory, observation during patient treatment Methods: -interviews, questionnaires, clinical method (free form interview) -limitations: not useful with very young children, accuracy and honesty problems and interpretation of question Observational Techniques -naturalistic (common surroundings) -Time-sampling (freq
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