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Chapter 4

chapter 4

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Western University
Psychology 2040A/B
Ian Mac Donald

Chapter 4: Prenatal Development, Birth, and Newborns Readiness for Life -germinal period (aka period of zygote) from conception to implantation in uterine wall -period of embryo (from week 3 to 8) -period of the fetus (from week 9 to birth) The path of implantation -support structures develop once implantation has occurred -amnion, chorion, placenta, umbilical cord Period of the Embryo -week 3 to 8 -early on, three layers of cells form rapidly -ectoderm: will become nervous system, skin, hair -mesoderm: will become muscles, bones, circulatory system -endoderm: will become digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, other vital organs -in second month: ears are formed, rudimentary skeleton, limbs develop, brain develops rapidly, indifferent gonad appears, about 2.5 cm long and 7 grams -third month: fetus able to kick, twist but not fully felt by mother, can swallow, digest and urinate, testosterone secreted by testes of males, ultrasound can detect sex, 7.5 cm long and under 28 grams Period of the Fetus Second Trimester (months 4-6) -more refined motor actions (thumb sucking) -heartbeat can be heard with stethoscope -hair appears -covered with vernix (white chest covering to prevent chapped skin) -covered with lanugo (fine layer of body hair) Third Trimester -finishing phase -organ systems mature -weight gain -age of variability at 22-28 weeks -survival outside uterus possible -moves head down position in 9 month Environmental Influences (affecting prenatal development) -teratogens (agents such as viruses, drugs, chemicals, radiation that can harm the fetus) -maternal characteristics (nutrition, emotional well being, age) -each developing structure has a sensitive period -a time when it is particularly susceptible to damage from teratogens -once fully formed, parts are less susceptible to damage Maternal Disease -rubella: most dangerous during 1 trimester, effects include blindness, deafness,
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