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Chapter 6

chapter 6

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Psychology 2040A/B
Ian Mac Donald

Chapter 6: Early Cognitive Foundations: Sensation, Perception and Learning -nature vs nurture debate -empiricists: infants must learn to interpret sensations -William James: blooming, buzzing confusion -nativists: basic perceptual abilities innate -Rene Descartes, Immanuel Kanr -enrichment vs differentiation -enrichment theory (Piaget): cognitive schemes are needed to make sense of sensory info -differentiation theory (Gibson): sensory info can be interpreted on its own, children learn to detect distinctive features Research Methods -preference method: two stimuli presented simultaneously, infants attention to each measured -habituation method: stimulus presented repeatedly until infants response habituates, discrimination ability is tested by presented second stimulus and observing response -dishabituation -evoked potentials: recording of brain electrical activity, observe changes in activity for different stimuli, changes indicate ability to discriminate -high amplitude sucking: pacifier sucking controls stimulus presentation Sensory Capabilities: -Hearing: newborns can know moms voice, early phoneme discrimination, quickly learns to recognize words, more developed than visual ability at birth -Taste and Smell: born with taste preferences, react to noxious odors, know moms scent -Touch, temp, pain: therapeutic massage, sensitive to food- room temp, sensitive to pain from circumcision
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