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Chapter 9

chapter 9

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Western University
Psychology 2040A/B
Ian Mac Donald

Chapter 9: Intelligence: Measuring Mental Performance What is intelligence? -psychometric approach: intelligence is a trait or set of traits on which individs differ -factor analysis: one or many abilities? (spearman’s g, thurstones primary mental abilities) -later factor analytic models (guilfords structure of intellect model, cattell and horns fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence) -hierarchical models: general ability factor, specialized ability factors (carrolls three stratum theory of intelligence) -information-processing perspective (Sternberg’s triarchic theory: context, experience, information-processing skills) -gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences (linguistic, spatial, logical-mathematical, musical, body-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist, spiritual) How is intelligence measured? -stanford-binet intelligence scale (IQ) -wechsler scales (WPPSI-11, WISC-IIV: both include verbal and non verbal performance measures) -the K-ABC -the bayley scales of infant development (2-30 months; motor scale, mental scale, behavioural record) uses developmental quotient, predictive value poor for later IQ -scores at age 8 correlate with scores at age 18 (.70) -cumulative deficit hypothesis -what do IQ scores predict Factors that influence IQ: -evidence for heredity -twin studies: identical twins IQ correlated more than fraternal -adoption studies: adopted childrens IQs resemble biological pa
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