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Chapter 11

chapter 11

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Western University
Psychology 2040A/B
Ian Mac Donald

Chapter 11: Emotional Development, Temperament and Attachment -basic or primary emotions: present at birth: interest, distress, disgust and contentment -emerge between 2 and 7 months: anger, sadness, joy, sadness, fear -complex or secondary emotions: embarrassment, shame, guilt, envy, pride -social referencing: use others emotions as a guide -temperament: characteristic modes of responding to environmental events (fearful distress, irritable distress, activity level, attention span…) -moderate correlation between heritability and temperament -several components of temperament are moderately stable (activity level, irritability, sociability and fearfulness) -behavioural inhibition: most and least inhibited children show the most stability -thomas and chess temperament profiles: -easy: positive mood, regular habits, adaptable -difficult: active, irritable, react negatively to novelty -slow to warm up: moody, inactive, eventually adapt to novelty Easy 23% Difficult 15% 62% Slow-to- warm-up -temperamental patterns persist over time -goodness-of-fit model: match between parenting and child’s temperament Attachment -John Bowlby -attachment describes: close relationship between two people, mutual affection, desire to maintain proximity -synchronized routines: -adjust behaviour in response to partner, occur several times a day, promote attachment Phases in infant attachment development: 1. asocial phase (0-6 weeks) 2. indiscriminate attachments (6 weeks-6/7 months) 3. specific attachment (7-9 months) 4. multiple attachments (by 18 months) -is feeding the cause of attachment? -psychoanalytic theorists: oral gratification -learning theorists: food is primary reinforcer, mother become secondary reinforcer -Harlow and Zimmerman tested feeding hypothesis: rhesus monkeys r
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