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Chapter 8

Psychology 2040A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Rote Learning, Mental Model, Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence

Course Code
Laura Reid

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Chapter 8 Intelligence
What Is Intelligence?
Intelligence as a Single Trait
Intelligence is a single entity that influences all aspects of cognitive
-Children who dowel on one intellectual task tend to do well on others too
-G, general intelligence, influences our ability to think and learn on all
intellectual tasks
Intelligence as a Few Basic Abilities
-Fluid intelligence: ability to think on the spot to solve novel problems
-Crystallized intelligence: factual knowledge about the world
-Primary mental abilities: word fluency, verbal meaning, reasoning,
spatial visualization, numbering ,rote memory, and perceptual speed
Fluid intelligence peak around 20 years, then declines; crystallized
intelligence increase as age growing. Primary mental abilities are more
precise compared with the other two.
Tests of each type of intelligence correlate more highly with each other than
they do with tests of the other type.
Intelligence as Multiple Processes
Viewing intelligence as “many things” allows more precise specification
of the processes involved in intelligent behavior than do approaches
that view it as “one thing” or ”a few things”
A Proposed Resolution
Three-stratum theory of intelligence: Carroll’s model of intelligence,
including G at the top of the hierarchy, the moderately general abilities in the
middle, and many specific processes at the bottomintelligence is all of the
Measuring Intelligence
-Intelligence is reflected in different abilities at different ages
-Stanford-Binet intelligence testthe items on tests developed to measure
intelligence at different ages reflect these changing aspects of intelligence
-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children verbal section (crystallized
intelligence) and performance section (fluid intelligence)
The Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
IQs at different ages are easy to compare, despite the great increases in
knowledge that accompany development in all children
Continuity of IQ Scores
The IQ scores that people obtain at different ages is highly correlated
-IQ scores of individual children tend to be quite stable over long periods of
time, but they vary somewhat from one testing to the next
Testing Infants’ Intelligence
Difficult to measure, but still have done some tests for identifying babies with
mental deficits and other developmental problems, as well ass some success
in predicting later intelligence
IQ Scores as Predictors of Important Outcomes
IQ scores are positively related to grades in school, achievement test
performance, and occupational success in adulthood. But they are not the
only influence on these outcomes. Motivation, creativity, health, social skills,
and a variety of other factors contribute, too.
Genes, Environment, and the Development of Intelligence
Qualities of the Child
Children contribute greatly to their own intellectual development. The
contribution comes about through their genetic endowment, the reactions they
elicit form other people, and their choice of environments.
Genetic Contribution to intelligence
Genetic influences modest in early childhood and becomes very large
by adolescence and adulthood
-some genetic processes do not have their effects on IQ until later
childhood and adolescence
-children’s increasing independence with age allow them greater freedom
to choose environments that are compatible with their own genetically
based preferences, but not necessarily with those of the parents who are
raising them
Genotype-Environment Interactions
Types of genotype
-Passive effects: arise when children are raised by their biological parents
children whose genotypes predispose them to enjoy reading are likely to
be raised in homes with books, magazine, and newspapers, because their
parents also like to read
-Evocative effects: emerge through children’s eliciting or influencing other
people’s behavior
-Active effects: involve children’s choosing environments that they enjoy.
Influence of the Immediate Environment
Family Influence
-Throughout childhood, children’s IQ scores, as well as their math and
reading achievement, are positively correlated with the learning stimulation
provided by their family environment as measured by the HOME
-HOME predicts future IQ scores
-HOME change, IQ change; HOME stable, IQ stable
-Only correlation between HOME and IQ, no causal relations.
Shared and non-shared family environments
-The influence of non-shared environments increases with age, and the
influence of shared-environments decreases with age, as children become
increasingly able to choose their own environments