Psychology 2040A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Social Cognitive Theory, Ethology
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View of Children’s Nature
-Development is largely driven by biological maturation
-Freud, behavior is motivated by the need to satisfy basic drives which are
mostly unconscious, and individuals often have only the dimmest ( 暗 暗
暗)understanding of why they do what they do.
-Erikson’s theory, a healthy development is driven by a series of developmental
crises related to age and biological maturation, with successfully resolved them
Central Developmental Issues
-Freud and Erikson: stage theories stress discontinuity in development and arise
the term of the interaction of nature and nurture on the biological
underpinnings of developmental stages and how they interact with the child’s
-Psychoanalytic theories stress the continuity of individual differences,
emphasizing that children’s early experiences have a major impact on their
Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development
Basic Features of Freud’s Theory
-Even young children have a sexual nature that influences their behavior and
their relationships with other people a theory of psychosexual development
-Freud believed that in each stage, children encounter conflicts related to the
particular erogenous zone in question and that their success or failure in
resolving these conflicts affects their development throughout life.
The Developmental Process
-The id- the earliest and most primitive of three personality structures posited
-The id, which is totally unconscious, is the source of psychic energy. It’s ruled
by the pleasure principle
-The id remains the source of psychic energy throughout life, with its operation
most apparent in selfish or impulsive behavior in which immediate
gratification is sought with little regard for consequences.
-The first stage of psychosexual development is oral stage.
-Infant’s mother is a source of security. And infants pay for this security by a
fear of loss of love
-Second personality structure, the ego emerges after first year. It arises out of
the need to resolve conflicts between the id’s unbridled demands for immediate
gratification and the restraints imposed by the external world. Overtime, it
developing into the individual’s sense of self.
-Second stage, anal stage. During the second year, last until roughly age 3.
-Third stage, phallic stage. 3-6.
-Young children experience intense sexual desires during the phallic stage, and
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in order to coping with them, it leads to the third personality structure, the
superego, What we think of as conscience (right and wrong).
-The superego is based on the child’s internalization of the parent’s rules and
standards for acceptable and unacceptable behavior.
-For boys, the path to superego development is through the resolution of the
-Girls experience a similar but less intense conflict, Electra complex, results in
their developing a weaker conscience than boys do.
-The fourth stage, latency period, 6 to 12. A time of relative calm
-Fifth and final, genital stage, begins with the advent of sexual maturation.
-The nature of the child’s passage through the stages of psychosexual
development shapes the individual’s personality for life
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
The Developmental Process
1. Basic trust versus Mistrust (the first year). If the ability to trust others when
it is appropriate to do so does not develop, the person will have difficulty
forming intimate relationships later in life
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1 – 3.5)To achieve a strong sense of
autonomy while adjusting to increasing social demands. If parents provide a
supportive atmosphere that allows children to achieve self-control without the
loss of self-esteem, children gain a sense of autonomy. In contrast, if children
are subjected to severe punishment or ridicule, they may come to doubt their
abilities or to feel a general sense of shame.
3. Initiative versus Guilt (4-6) the children in this third stage of life is constantly
setting goals and working to achieve them. Internalization of parents’ rules
and standards, and the experiencing of guilt when failing to uphold them.
(development of conscience)
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6 – puberty 青青青) crucial for ego development.
Children master cognitive and social skills that are important in their culture,
and they learn to work industriously and to cooperate with peers. Successful
experiences give the child a sense of competence, but failure can lead to
excessive feelings of inadequacy or inferiority.
5. Identity vs. role confusion (adolescence to early adulthood) critical stage
for the achievement of a core sense of identity. Caught between their past
identity as a child and the many options and uncertainties of their future,
adolescents must resolve the question of who they really are or live in
confusion about what roles they should play as adults
-Although the precise reasons for the absence of autobiographical memory in
the first three years are unresolved, virtually no one thinks it is due to
repression, as Freud claimed
-The nature of infants’ relationships with their parents not only affects behavior
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