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Chapter 10

Psychology 2040A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: The Emotions, Carroll Izard, Heredity

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Laura Reid

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Chapter 10 Emotional Development
The Development of Emotions in Childhood
Theories on the Nature and Emergence of Emotion
-Charles Darwin that the facial expressions for certain basic emotional
states are innate to the species, and universal, and are found even in
very young babies
-Carroll Izard discrete emotions theory, emotions are innate, that
each emotion is packaged with a specific set of bodily and facial
reactions, and that distinct emotions are evident from very early in life
-Some argue environmental factors play an important role in the
emergence and expression of emotions
-Sroufe’s view, changes in the affect system are largely due to infants’
expanding social experiences and their increasing ability to understand
-Functionalist approach to understanding emotional development. The
basic function of emotions is to promote action toward achieving a goal
in a given context. Emotional reactions are affected by social goals and
the influence of significant others.
-Perspectives above are not definitive
The Emergence of Emotion in the Early Years and Childhood
-Getting a clear picture of early emotional development is a more difficult
task when it comes to negative emotions than it is with regard to
positive emotions
Positive Emotions
-Smile in the first month may be reflexive and seem to be evoked by
some biological state rather than by social interaction
-By the 3rd month of life, baby begin to exhibit social smile which smiles
directed toward people
-Human are much more likely to make them smile than some 没没没没没没没, like
-At least 2 months of age, they are pleasant in controlling events
-7 month, smile primarily at familiar people, rather than at people in
-Late 1st year, children’s cognitive development allows them to take
pleasure from unexpected or discrepant events such as Mom making a
funny noise.
-2nd year of life, clown around themselves, and are delighted when they
can make others laugh desire to share positive emotion and activities
with parents
Negative Emotions
-1st: distress 没没
-2 months of age, facial expressions of what appears to be anger or

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sadness have been reliably differentiated from one another and from
distress/pain in some contexts.
-But young infants are experiencing undifferentiated distress when they
evidence negative emotion
Fear and distress
-Young children who were not afraid of strangers at 6 months of age
often suddenly show fear of them at 7 or 8 months of age infants’
growing attachment to their parents and their recognition that unfamiliar
people do not provide the comfort and pleasure that familiar people do
-Separation anxiety, distress due to separation from the parent that is
the child’s primary caregiver  8-13 or 15 months.
-The degree varies with the context.
Anger and sadness 4-8 months
-When then cannot control in their environment, they show anger and
sadness. Sadness<anger frequency of displacement.
The Self-Conscious Emotions: Embarrassment, Pride, Guilt, and
-During 2nd year of life, because that is when children gain the
understanding that they themselves are entities distinct from other
people and begin to develop a sense of self
-The emergence of self-conscious emotions is also fostered by
children’s growing sense of what adults and society expect of them
-15-24 month, they show embarrassment when they are made the
center of attention
-The first signs of pride are evident in children’s smiling glances at
others when they have successfully met a challenge or achieved
something new.
-Guilty: focus on the consequences of their wrongdoing and may try to
make it up to those affected by their behavior.
-Shave, their focus is on themselves: they fell that they are exposed and
they often feel like hiding
-Whether children experience guilt or shave partly depends on parental
practices.  you did a bad thing (guilt) you are a bad boy (shame)
-The situations likely to induce self-conscious emotions in children vary
somewhat across cultures
Normal Emotional Development in Childhood
-The causes of emotions continue to change in childhood
-Children’s emotional states are highly influenced by the world around
-Serious bouts of depression are much more common in adolescence
than in childhood
-Female > Male
-Poorer children are especially prone to major depression appear to be
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