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Chapter 11

Psychology 2040A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Social Comparison Theory, Imaginary Audience, Egocentrism

Course Code
Laura Reid

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Chapter 11 Attachment to Others and Development of
The Caregiver-Child Attachment Relationship
Children’s health social and emotional development is rooted in their early
social interactions with adults
Attachment Theory
Bowlby’s Attachment Theory
-Secure base the presence of a trusted caregiver provides the infant
or toddler with a sense of security that allows the child to explore the
environment and hence to become generally knowledgeable and
-The development and quality of infants’ attachments are highly
dependent on the nature of their experiences with caregivers
-Initial development of attachment takes place in
1. Preattachment(birth to 6 weeks)
2. Attachment-in-the-making (6 weeks to 6-8 months) infants begin to
respond preferentially to familiar people
3. Clear –cut attachment (6-8 months to 1.5 years) infants actively
seek contact with their regular caregivers. The mother now serves
as a secure base.
4. Reciprocal relationships (1.5 2+) use the understanding of their
parents’ feelings, goals, and motives to organize their efforts to be
near their parents. Separation distress declines
-Children’s internal working models of attachment are believed to
influence their overall adjustment, social behavior, and the development
of their self-esteem and see of self
Ainsworth’s Research
-Two key measures provide insight into the quality of the infant’s
attachment to the caregive:1 the extent to which an infant is able to use
his or her primary caregiver as a secure base; and 2 how the infant
reacts to brief separations from and reunion with the caregiver
Measurement of Attachment Security
-Strange Situation
-Secure attachment.
-Insecure attachment: resistant/ ambivalent and avoidant
-Disorganized/disoriented, seem to have an unsolvable problem: they
want to approach their mother, but they also seem to regard her a
source of fear from which they want to withdraw
-Children’s behavior in the SS correlates with attachment scores derived
from observing children’s interactions with their mothers over several
-Attachment measurements derived from SS also correlate with later

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behavior patterns
Cultural Variations in Attachment
-Infants’ behaviors in the SS are similar across numerous cultures. They
all have same attachment categories
-The degree to which children are encourage to be independent varies
across cultures and can affect whether or not children are categorized
as insecure/resistant
-Children who are in day care tend to react less negatively and seek
less comfort in the SS than children who are at home every day with
the same caregiver
-Group differences in children’s behaviors in the SS may reflect not only
real differences in the security of their attachments but also differences
in their everyday experiences
Factors Associated with the Security of Children’s Attachment
Parental Sensitivity
-Constantly responsive care giving
-Parental sensitivity have a causal effect on infants’ attachment has
been provided by short-term experimental interventions designed to
enhance the sensitivity of mothers’ caregiving.
Children’s Temperament
-Differences in children’s temperament might be expected to influence
both the way parents behave with their children and the security of a
child’s attachment
-Temperament plays at best only a small role in children’s security of
Does Security of Attachment Have Long-Term Effect
-Securely attached infants appear to grow up to be better adjusted and
more socially skilled than insecurely attached children
-More harmonious relationships with peers than do insecurely attached
-Predicts positive peer and romantic relationships and emotion health in
-Children’s security of attachment is related to their later psychological,
social and cognitive functioning. But some argues that , if the parent-
child relationship and family circumstances change due to divorce,
financial stress, or other factors, including positive ones, the child’s
attachment and development are likely to change as well
-Children’s development can be predicted better form the combination of
both their early attachment status and the quality of subsequent
parenting than from either factor alone
Conceptions of Self
The development of Conceptions of Self
The Self in Infancy
-Infants have a sense of their ability to control objects outside of
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