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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Summary & Terms

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Psychology 2040A/B
Ian Mac Donald

CHAPTER 1 SUMMARYy Development refers to the systematic continuities and changes that individuals display over the course of their lives that reflect the influence of biological maturation and learningy Developmentalists come from many disciplines and all study the process of developmenty Developmental Psychology is the largest of these disciplines y Normative developments are typical developments characterizing all members of a species ideographic developments describe those that may vary across individualsy Developmentalists goals are to describe explain and optimize developmentholistic highly y Human development is a continual and cumulative process that is plastic and heavily influenced by the historical and cultural contexts in which it occursHuman Development in Historical Perspectivey In medieval times children were afforded few of the rights and protections of todays youthththoriginal sin innate purity and tabula rasa y The 1718 c philosophies of contributed to a more humane outlook on childrenthy In the 19 c scientists began to record the development of their infant sons and daughters in baby biographiesy The scientific study of development did not emerge until the early 1900s when G theories about human developmentStanley Hall began to collect and formulate y Soon other researchers were deriving hypotheses and conducting research to evaluate and extend early theories Research Methods in Developmental Psychology y The scientific method is a value system that requires the use of objective data to determine the viability of theoriesy Acceptable research methods possess both reliability produces consistent validity accurately measures what it is intended to measure replicable results and y The most common methods of data collection in child and adolescent development are o Self Reports questionnaires and interviews o The Clinical Method more flexible interview method o Observational Methodologies naturalistic and structured observations o Case Studieso Ethnographyo Psychophysiological Methods Detecting Relationships CorrelationalExperimental Designs y Correlational designs examine relationships as they naturally occur without intervention
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