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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Summary & Terms

7 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 2040A/B
Ian Mac Donald

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CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY The Nature of Scientific Theoriesy A theory is a set of concepts and propositions that describe and explain observations Good theories are o Parsimonious concise and yet applicable to a wide range of phenomena Falsifiable o o Heuristic they build on existing knowledge by continuing to generate testable hypotheses leading to new discoveries and important practical applicationsQuestionsControversies About Human Development y Theories of human development differ with respect to their stands on 4 basic themes nature or nurture o 1 Is development primarily determined by actively or passively involved in their development o 2 Are humans o 3 Is development a quantitative and continuous process or a qualitative discontinuous process and o 4 Are various areas of development interrelated and holistic or basically separate and distinctThe Psychoanalytic Viewpoint y The psychoanalytic perspective originated with Sigmund Freuds psychosexual theory with basic tenets o People are driven by inborn sexual and aggressive instincts that must be controlled unconscious motives that people o Peoples behaviour was said to reflect repress y Freud proposed 5 stages of psychosexual development oral anal phallic latency and genitaly During development 3 components of personality the id ego and superego become integratedpsychosocial theory extended Freuds theory by y Erik Eriksons o Concentrating less on the sex instincto Concentrating more on important sociocultural determinants of human development o Arguing that people progress through a series of 8 psychosocial conflictso The conflicts begin with trust vs mistrust in infancy and conclude with integrity vs despair in old age o Each conflict must be resolved in favour of the positive trait trust for example for health development The Learning Viewpointy The learning viewpoint or behaviourism originated with John B Watson habits as a result of their o Viewed infants as tabula rasa who developed learning experiences
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