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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Summary & Terms

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Psychology 2040A/B
Ian Mac Donald

CHAPTER 8 SUMMARY Information FlowThe Multistore Modely Informationprocessing theorists use the analogy of the mind as a computer with information flowing through a limitedcapacity system composed of mental hardware and software multistore model depicts the human informationprocessing system as y The a sensory registerstore to detect or log in input a shortterm consisting of store STS where information is stored temporarily until we can operate on it and longterm store LTS a permanent or y Also included in most informationprocessing models is a concept of executive control processes or metacognition which include processes by which we plan monitor and control all phases of information processingDevelopmental Differences in InformationProcessing Capacityy Age differences in informationprocessing hardware have been examined by memory span and span of apprehension to evaluate capacity of the assessing STS Although substantial age differences in the STS have been found many developmental differences in memory can be attributed to increases in knowledge base and how quickly children can process informationDevelopmental Differences in Software StrategiesKnowledge of Thinkingy Research on developmental changes in informationprocessing software has strategiesgoaldirected operations used to aid task focused mainly on performancey Frequent findings include production deficiencies in which children fail to produce a strategy spontaneously but can do so when instructed and utilization deficiencies in which children experience little or no benefit when they use a new strategyy Children of all ages have been found to use multiple and variable strategies in adaptive solving problems a phenomenon that is explained by Robert Sieglers strategy choice modely Childrens understanding of what it means to think increases over the preschool and implicit early school years Few or no developmental differences are observed for cognition cognition that is performed without conscious awareness in contrast to explicit cognition or cognition with awarenessFuzzyTrace Theory An Alternative Viewpointy Recent alternatives to the multistore model of information processing is fuzzytrace theory which claims that we process information at both a gist and verbatim level and accounts for some age differences in memory and problem solving and theories inhibition in childrens intellectual developmentthat emphasize the role ofThe Development of Attention attention spans of children and adolescents increase dramatically y With age the owing in part to increasing myelinization of the CNS
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