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Chapter 2

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Western University
Psychology 2042A/B
Jeff St.Pierre

Psychology 2042 Chapter 2 Lecture – Jan 15 - Theories will not give you all answers o Cannot define everything o Need multiple theoretical foundations - Always look at multiple interacting causes - Unidimensional model  short in some way - Can’t separate individual from environment  need both to see what is happening - See continuities and discontinuities o See persistent and gradual changes o Also see abrupt changes - late onset conduct problems  late teens – experiment with some drugs, doesn’t impact education or life - early onset  persist constantly; young aggressive child  continues and progresses throughout life  anti-social personality disorder continues => continuity - discontinuity  ex. Autism  child plays and babbles then suddenly loses language o sudden onset  look for sudden cause  look at vaccinations (no evidence supporting this as a cause) Piaget’s Children - Organization o Arranging info into structures called schemes - Adaptation o Adjusting to environment  Assimilate (fit into scheme) OR  Accommodate (alter scheme) Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor – touch, interact, bang things, use all senses to discover world Preoperational – represent world symbolically Concrete Operational – learns rules (ex. Conservation); cannot imagine different world Formal Operational – transcend concrete and think about future; think abstractly - Piaget is a stage theorist - Look at development over time of the child - Have to learn to crawl, before you walk, etc.  early patterns lead to higher- order functions  structure evolve over time BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES - circuits in brain  continue to mature and develop after birth - more circuits at birth than will be used o start using brain  determines which circuits develop and which pruned  use them or lose them - babies that weren’t nurtured, raised in a sterile environment without stimulation  developmental problems - brain changes to adapt to environment  neural plasticity - prefrontal cortex  CEO of the brain  makes judgments and decisions o even into late adolescence  not completed development - maturation o dendrites forming o myelination developed and strong = white matter = faster processing - developing areas = tons of white matter = super fast processing o humans have more white matter than other creature = better cognition Neural Plasticity - some things can be fixed if injured - job to protect brain o hallucinations and delusions  see right away and treat it  prevent further development of the disease  slow further damage Genetics - no disease in this course is linked to a single gene, dominant or recessive - multiple genes involved in all disorders in this course o aware of some risk factors but not exact - cell made by DNA code and RNA and ribosomes  thousands of proteins - what happens in life can alter expression of genes o whether or not gene gets expressed changes based on lifetime - gene expression  at risk in high stress and at low risk at low stress o Lick your rat  Rats  some well nurtured vs. not well nurtured  Well nurtured  less anxious  Nurtured  more anxious - Fraction of disorders understood based on DNA sequences - Look at gene interactions and environments o Even in identical twins see differences b/c of environment  Different lives = different personalities, interests, etc. - top of head = sensorimotor - limbic system – emotions and memory - hormone levels  prolonged activation in homeostatic regulation  alters ability to cope and act normal - possibility of epigenetics and behavior learning - adolescent brain  thickening of myelination and development of gray matter o brain grows like a tree  brain grows and then is pruned  grows some new branches - prefrontal cortex  problem solving,  built during teenage years - Emotions not good or bad  all
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