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Chapter 13

Psych 2042b - Chapter 13.docx

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Psychology 2042A/B
James M Olson

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Chapter 13: Eating Disorders and Related Conditions How Eating Patterns Develop - Normal development o 1 in 4 kids picky eaters (mostly girls) o Age 9: girls want to lose weight o Weight concerns come from comments, media, etc. st o Parent-child relationship*** 1 important o Entering school** 2 important - Developmental risk factors o Drive for thinness for image, dieting  Girls think this will bring them success o Early eating habits, attitudes, behaviours  People think cultural standards are tied to ability control how much you weigh  These are internalized and come at early age (7-10)  CASE STUDY: 25% girls have eating problems at each assessment over 8 years  RESULT: early puberty, more fat, psychological problem, worse body  Weight concern and body image related to eating problems in adolescence o Transition into adolescence  Anorexia and bulimia most often starts in adolescence (rare after)  Girls who mature early = fatter  Girls see themselves worse than boys  Girls who see themselves as “superwomen” (like the girls in media) at high risk for getting eating disorders o Dieting and weight concerns  Dieting is very popular in North America  Chronic diet – 10 times a year  Starts in elementary, continues throughout adolescence  Mid-adolescence – 2/3 girls diet (10% are chronic dieters)  Only 2% chronic in boys  Purging – vomiting, using laxatives to get rid of food in body  Binge-purge cycle – diet, crave, binge eat, purge, disgust, repeat  Dieting is good or bad  False hope syndrome - Biological regulators o Metabolic rate – genetic and habit based o Individual metabolism – self-monitored o Malnutrition – more GH, shitty circadian rhythm, lethargy, apathy o Body weight – people have a natural weight range that their body tries to maintain o Growth – highly dependent on growth hormone (during deep sleep), thyroid hormone, gonadal steroids (adolescence) - Growth hormone o Released by pituitary gland o GH inhibiting factor – stops GH response, says you’re full o GH releasing factor – tells body when and where to grow Obesity - Age 2-19: 1 in 6 are obese - Childhood obesity – excessively fat kids o Calculated by BMI (above 95%)  Kid’s weight/ 2(height in inches) * 703 = BMI - Prevalence and development o 1980-2000 – obesity times 3 in boys, times 2 in girls o 1990-2010 – childhood obesity from 4.2% - 6.7% o Childhood obesity likely continues to older age o Cholesterol & triglycerides o Hispanics fatter o Non-Hispanic black girls fatter o USA is fattest country - Causes o Fat parents 3 times more expected to have fat kids o A large portion is heritable (hormone called LEPTIN)  Leptin deficiency known to make kids fatter o Family and individual choices - Treatment o Restricting diet ISN’T recommended o Be more active fatty o Requires both self and family efforts o Educate yourself! (school stuff) Feeding and Eating Disorders (THREE categories) 1. Feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood o Before age 6 o Sudden loss of weight gain o Prevalence and development  1 in 3 kids (boys and girls)  Early onset = malnutrition  No typical outcome o Causes and treatment  Family problems, poverty, social isolation, mentally ill parents  Maternal eating disorder  Affects child eating habits a lot  Treat individually and with parental help 2. Pica o Eating stuff that you’re not supposed to eat for a month o Usually kids that aren’t smart o Bad if it goes to adolescence o Prevalence and development  Higher in institutionalized kids and adults  Mental retarded  0.3–14.4% in retarded, 9-25% in institutionalized o Causes and treatment  Being retarded or not enough supervision  No biological abnormalities are linked  No genetic factor  Treat by conditioning and give supervisors education 3. Failure to thrive (FTT) o Growth disorder o Early feeding disturbance o Prevalence th
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