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Chapter 1

CHAPTER 1 ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCH INTRO

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2042A/B
Professor
Doug Hazlewood
Semester
Fall

Description
CH 1: INTRODUCTION HOW TO DEFINE & IDENTIFY PSYCH DISORDERS  Behavs are abnormal, atypical, harmful, developmentally inappropriate, interfere with adaptation, reside within individual and/or with other ppl/environments o Abnormal: child/adolescent consistently violates rules and behaviour interferes with everyday functioning and basic developmental tasks  APA: clinically significant behavioral or psych pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with distress, impairment, increased risk of death, pain, disability, loss of freedom  Developmental norms: typical rates of growth, sequences of growth, forms of physical skills/language/cognition/emotion/social behaviour; standards o Tell us how to behave and help us distinguish the fine line btw normal/abnormal  Behavioural indicators of disorder: delayed development, developmental regression/deterioration, atypical frequency/intensity/duration of behaviour, behav inappropriate to situation, abrupt changes in behav, behav qualitatively diff from normal  Standards for behav depend on developmental, cultural (ethnicity/race), gender, situational norms, role of others o Culture: research indicates that culture can impact how parents and teachers perceive a childs behav and how a parent or teacher conceptualizes the cause of a childs behav; cross cultural differences  Cultural norms: broad influence on judgments, expectations, and beliefs about behaviour of youth  Ethnicity: common customs, values, language, traits associated with national origin  Race: physical characteristics associated with shared customs/values  Ex) European American vs Asian American parents concened with achievement of behaviour of children o Gender: gender norms (girl=passive, emotional; boys=active, tough) can impact behav o Situation: what is expected in specific settings or social situations; running and jumping acceptable on playground but not in math class o Role of others: Parents and professionals may differ on their views of a child and what is considered inappropriate  Society has changing view of abnormality  Identify problems of youth: developmental/cultural/gender/situational norms, role of adults, changing views of abnormality PREVALENCE OF PSYCH DISORDERS  15-20% youth aged 4-18 have problems  in US 13-22% children and adolescents have major emotional/conduct disorders (preschoolers/toddlers are similar and at risk)  according to APA (2007): 10% youth have serious problems; 10% have mild/moderate problems; many display symptoms of more than 1 disorder  Some evidence that rates of disorders among youth are increasing  difficult to draw conclusions about historical/secular trends due to variation in studies, variation in methodological issues (mixed/complex findings)  2/3—3/4 of needy youth may not be receiving adequate trt due to less availability and ineffective coordination  many disorders which carry burden of adult death and disability in developed areas of world are related to mental health and often first observed in youth (implications across lifespan) RELATIONSHIP BTW DEVELOPMENTAL LEVEL & PSYCH DISORDERS  some association exists btw onset or identification of specific disorders and age/developmental level, due to timing of childs emerging abilities and envtal demands placed on child  onset may occur gradually; vary according to gender/age o sometimes onset is insidious (slowly/subtly occurring in negative way) o point to etiology (cause): early=prenatal/genetic; later=developmental influences o severity/outcome of disorder: earlier onset for disorderstypically associated with later ages may mean more severe course (ie substance abuse, conduct disorder) o parents/teachers can be sensitive to signs and prevent or facilitate early trt to reduce severity RELATIONSHIP BTW GENDER & PSYCH DISORDERS  gender differences occur in rates of disorder, with boys exhibiting higher rates for many disorders  higher for males: autism spectrum disorder, oppositional disorder, drug abuse, intellectual disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, language disorder, reading disability  higher for females: anxieties & fears, depression, eating disorder  other gender diff exists (ex. Timing, developmental change, expression of problems) o males vulnerable early in life; females later in adolescence o externalizing problems (aggression, delinquency) drop with age for both genders; internalizing problems (anxiety, depression, withdrawal, bodily complaints) rise for females o males display physical aggression; females gossip METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES, TRUE DIFFERENCES  methodological factors/bias including biased clinical samples account for reported gender differences o referral bias: boys with reading problems given help over girls due to disruptive behaviours o clinical sample bias: criteria is based on male behaviours not female; therefore fewer girls fit symptoms and are identified  BUT numerous biological and psychosocial factors underlie true gender differences o Biological: sex chromosomes, bio maturity later I boys; bio sex differences to stress and in emotion o Psychosocial: sociability, friendships, interaction with parents/teachers, sex role expectations HISORICAL INFLUENCES ON UNDERSTANDING PSYCH DISORDERS  early interest in psychopathology focused on adults, with problems attributed to: o demonology: belief that behavior results from a
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