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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - ONLINE

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2042A/B
Professor
Richard Brown
Semester
Fall

Description
Psych 2042A Chapter 2: The Developmental Psychopathology Perspective Perspectives, Theories, Models • Thomas Kuhn has made us aware that science is completely not objective • scientists have to adopt their own perspectives • when a perspective is shaped, it is called a paradigm • a paradigm typically includes assumptions and concepts • taking a perspective or a stance in one thing have advantages and disadvantages to it when evaluating • Theories • a theory is a formal, integrated set of principles or propositions that explains phenomena - theories can be tested • examples of theories include: psychoanalytic theory, behavioural/social learning theory • theories tend to focus on multifaceted dimensions • Models • along with theories, models are presented - a model is a representation or description of the phenomenon of the study. • interactional models: at the heart of these models are many variables that interrelate to produce an outcome • example: vulnerability-stress model (diathesis-stress model) • states that psychopathology is the result of a vulnerability factor and a stress factor • transactional models: basic assumption that development is ongoing, reciprocal transactions between the individual and the environment context. • system models: incorporate several levels, or systems, of functioning in which development is viewed as occurring over time as systems interact or enter into ongoing transactions with each other. • biopsychosocial model: integrates genetic activity, nervous system activity, behaviour, and several aspects of the environment. • ecological model: situates the individual within a network of environmental influences and assumes transactions between the person and these influences, as well as among the several levels of the environment. Developmental Psychopathology Perspective: An Overview • developmental psychopathology perspective has become influential in the study of disorders • has taken normal development as its subject matter - understands how people grow and change • interested in the origins and the developmental course of disordered behaviour, and in individual adaptation and success as well • a systems framework for understanding disordered behaviour in relation to normal development • rather than imposing specific theories, it is a way of integrating numerous theories or approaches around a core of developmental knowledge, issues, and questions • the developmental perspective is composed of several microparadigms (ie. biological, behavioural, psychoanalytic, cognitive, systems) • therefore, developmental perspective is a macroparadigm Concept of Development • development refers to growth, meaning not only bigger, but also better • development happens over time (lifespan) • development is a measure of qualitative and quantitative change • development proceeds in a coherent pattern, that the current situation is dependent on the past and the future 4 overlapping issues that center around developmental psychopathology: the search for causal factors and processes pathways of development risk and resilience continuity of problems over time Searching for Causal Factors and Processes • we realize that a single cause seldom accounts for most psychological or behavioural disorders • important to distinguish between direct effects and indirect effects • path of influence for indirect effects are usually more difficult and complex • mediator: refers to a factor or variable that explains or brings about an outcome, more specifically by indirect means - crucial to understanding indirect effects and causal factors • moderator: a variable that influences the direction or strength of relationships between an independent and dependent variable • distinguish between necessary, sufficient, and contributing causes • necessary cause: must be present in order for the disorder to occur • sufficient cause: can by itself be responsible for the disorder • contributing cause: not necessary nor sufficient - can add or multiply the effects of the disorder • For example: Down syndrome - genetic influences are necessary and sufficient • Schizophrenia - genetic influences necessary but not sufficient - you need environmental factors (stressors) to trigger schizophrenia Pathways of Development • abnormal behaviour doesnʼt arise out of the blue, but emerges gradually as a child matures • development is characterized as involving progressive adaptations or maladaptations to changing circumstances - favourable or unfavourable development • one of the main tasks of psychopathology is to describe and understand pathways of adaptation and maladaptation • According to Compas, Hinden, & Gerhardt, 1995 - there are 5 developmental pathways during adolesence - look at Fig. 2-2 (p.26) • Path 1: Stable Adaptation - low exposure to negative circumstances, positive self- worth and few problems • Path 2: Stable Maladaptation - opposite of path 1, characterized by youth having problems and continually experiencing adversities and inadequate resources • ** the next 3 paths involve change during oneʼs adolescent years • Path 3: Reversal of Maladaptation - maladaptation turns out positively maybe due to environmental opportunity • Path 4: Decline of Adaptation - opposite of path 3, adaptation turns into decline (maladaptation) due to adversities • Path 5: Temporal Maladaptation - starts of with adaptive behaviour, then depicts a temporary decline and a bouncing back to adaptive behaviour • i.e. experimental short-term drug abuse • Equifinality and Multifinality (Fig. 2-3) - p.27 • Equifinality: refers to the fact that diverse paths, or factors, can be associated with the same outcome • children can travel in different development pathways, but yet end up with the same disorders (i.e. different pathways for antisocial behaviour) • Multifinality: refers to the fact that an experience may function differently depending on a host of other influences that may lead to different outcomes. • children can have the same kinds of experience, yet end up with different problems or no problems at all Risk and Resilience • Risk Factors • risk factors are variables that precede and increase the chance of psychological impairments • multiple risk factors can be detrimental because their effects add or multiply on to each other. - risks tend to cluster • intensity, duration, and timing of a
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