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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - ONLINE

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Western University
Psychology 2042A/B
Richard Brown

Psych 2042A Chapter 8: Conduct Problems in this chapter and Chapter 9, we discuss problems that are externalizing these problems tend to place youth in trouble with their peers terms that are used to describe these problems are: disruptive, impulsive, undercontrolled, oppositional, antisocial, conduct-disordered, and delinquent this chapter is focused on aggression, oppositional behaviours, and more serious conduct problems - Chapter 9 focuses on hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity Classication and Description common complaints of noncompliant, aggressive, and antisocial behaviour parents and teachers describe them as individuals who do not follow instructions, do not comply with requests or seem irritable or angry adolescents may engage in dangerous behaviour and use illegal substances distress for family and teachers, create discord among family members, or interfere with classroom functioning. there seems to be a persistence with the behaviours from childhood and adulthood Figure 8-1 (p.191) provides the types of conduct behaviours that are described as problematic and aversive and the DSM disorders associated with them DSM Approach: Overview in the section of Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence, the DSM has a category of Attention-Decit and Disruptive Behaviour ADHD discussed in Chapter 9 and diagnoses of Oppositional Deant Disorders and Conduct Disorder, which are discussed in this chapter Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD): individual display a persistent pattern of aggressive and antisocial behaviour after the age of 18 a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others individuals with APD may also display psychopathy - an interpersonal trait dened by characteristics such as deceitfulness, callousness, lack of remorse, and impulsivity requires that the pattern had to be present at the age of 15, with the evidence that they met the criteria for Conduct Disorder before age 15 youngsters who receive the diagnosis of APD as adults show signs of psychopathy (callous/unemotional traits) during their youth callous/unemotional traits: displaying shallow emotions, lacking anxiety and empathy, and feeling little or no guilt. DSM Approach: Oppositional Deant Disorder young children are often stubborn and do not comply with requests or directions not all such behaviour is indicative or predictive of clinical problems Oppositional Deant Disorder (ODD): described as a pattern of negativistic, hostile, and deant behaviour that is developmentally extreme. behaviours include: loses temper, argues with adults, actively dees or refuses to comply with adult requests or rules, deliberately annoys others, blames others for 1 own mistakes or misbehaviour, is touchy or easily annoyed, is angry and resentful, is spiteful or vindictive behaviour must be judged to occur more frequently than is typical for a child of comparable age. behaviours cause impairment in social or academic functioning ODD is more common among clinic-referred children noncompliant, stubborn, and oppositional deant behaviour may represent for some youngsters the earliest steps on a developmental path of persistent antisocial behaviour DSM Approach: Conduct Disorder Conduct Disorder: represents more seriously aggressive and antisocial behaviours aggression towards people and animals (bullies, threatens, initiates ghts, has used a weapon, physically cruel to people/animals, forced someone into sexual activity, stolen while confronting a victim) destruction of property (re setting w/ the intention of causing damage, other ways of destroying other peoples property) deceitfulness or theft (has broken into a house/building/car, often lies to avoid obligations or to obtain goods or favours, stolen items without confronting a victim) serious violations of rules (stays out at night despite parental prohibitions before age 13, run away from home overnight at least twice, truant from school before 13) DSM Approach requires that 3 or more behaviours from one of the categories above should be present during the past 12 months, with at least one of them present in the past 6 months. behaviour causes impairment in social or academic functioning 2 subtypes: based on whether one or more of the behaviours had on onset prior to age 10 Childhood-Onset Adolescent-Onset since there is a wide variety of behaviours, diagnosis of Conduct Disorder may represent a heterogenous group of youths with different subtypes Empirically Derived Syndromes empirically derived syndrome involving aggressive, oppositional, destructive, and antisocial behaviour syndrome has also been called externalizing, undercontrolled, or conduct disorder efforts have been made to make this syndrome narrower - Achenbach and Rescorla (2001) described 2 syndromes: aggressive behaviour and rule- breaking behaviour (see Table 8.3 p.195) research suggests that there is a higher degree of heritability for the aggressive than for the rule-breaking syndrome developmental differences between the syndromes - average scores of the 2 syndromes declined between age 4-10, and after age 10, the scores on the aggressive syndrome continued to decline, whereas scores of the delinquent (rule- breaking) syndrome, increased 2 authors of the study found that the stability (similarity of a particular individuals behaviour at two points in time) was higher for the aggressive than for the delinquent (rule-breaking) syndrome adolescent-onset category consisted of principally nonaggressive and rule- breaking behaviours, and an early-onset category includes these behaviours WITH aggressive behaviours the salient symptom approach is based on the primary behaviour problem being displayed. distinguish between antisocial children whose primary problem is aggression from those whose primary problem is stealing salient symptom approach suggests a broader distinction between overt confrontational antisocial behaviour (ghting, tantrums) and covert antisocial behaviour (re setting, lying, stealing, truancy) further expansion of this approach is grouping the over-covert behaviour into destructive and nondestructive dimension of behaviour (see Fig.8-3 p.197) i.e. overt-destructive: cruel to animals, spiteful, assault, ghts, bullies i.e. overt-nondestructive: temper tantrums, argues, annoys others, stubborn i.e. covert-destructive: re setting, vandalism, steals i.e. covert-nondestructive: runs away, truancy, substance use, swears Gender Differences: Relational Aggression gender differences exists in prevelance, developmental course, and factors and processes that contribute to the development of conduct problems most basic aspect of gender differences is the way that conduct problems are expressed in boys and girls - most of the research has been conducted with male samples Crick and colleagues stated the general denition of aggression as intent to hurt or harm others- aggression is typical overt physical or verbal behaviours noted that during early and middle childhood, peer interactions tend to be segregated by gender therefore, childs aggression would focus on social issues most salient in same- gender peer groups boys have the characteristics of instrumentality and physical dominance girls are more focused on developing close dyadic relationships - girls are more prone to relational aggression (hurt the feelings or damage a friendship): purposely making some feel left out getting mad at another person and excluding them from the peer group telling a person you will not like him or her unless they do what you say saying mean things or lying about the person so others wont like them relational aggression may t in the the realm of covert antisocial behaviour- found through preschool and adolescence relational aggression is associated with peer rejection, depression, anxiety, and feelings of loneliness and isolation youth who exhibit gender nonnormative forms of aggression (i.e. boys exhibit relational aggression; girls who are overtly aggressive), exhibit more behaviour problems than those who engage in gender normative aggression or nonaggressive 3 important to dene aggression - concept of relational aggression challenges the view that girls are nonaggressive and suggests caution in making non-gender specic interpretations of ndings (aka the concept tells us to take into consideration that there are different types of aggression) Delinquency delinquency is a primarily legal rather than a psychological one as a legal term, it refers to a juvenile (under 18yrs) who has committed an index crime or a status offense index crime: a crime that would be illegal for adults and juveniles (ie. rape) status offense: act that is illegal only for juveniles (ie. truancy, violation of curfews, or incorrigibility distinction between delinquent behavi
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