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Psychology (4,907)
Chapter 1

Ch.1 textbook notes for distance studies summer course

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2042A/B
Professor
Alvin Segal
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 1IntroductionDefining and Identifying AbnormalityAtypical and Harmful BehavioursPsychological problems Atypical odd abnormalAmerican Psychiatric Association defines a disorder as a clinically significant behavioral or psychological pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with distress impairment increased risk of death pain disability or important loss of freedomAbnormality or psychopathology defined asDysfunction that resides within an individualInterferes with adaptationIndividuals reactions to circumstances with the interface of the individual with other people or environmental conditionsEmphasizes behavioural is inextricably linked with the larger world in which it is embeddedDevelopmental StandardsDevelopmental norms the typical rates of growth sequences of growth and forms of physical skills language cognition emotion and social behaviordevelopmental standards used to determine when something is wrongBehavioural Indicators of DisordersTable 11 p3 Quantitative differences for developmental normsDevelopmental delayDevelopmental regression or deteriorationExtremely high or low frequency of behaviourExtremely high or low intensity of behaviourBehavioural difficulty persists over timeBehaviour inappropriate to the situationAbrupt changes in behaviour outgoing adolescent turns solitarySeveral problem behaviorsBehavior qualitatively different from normalNormal for a child to display fear only a problem if it occurs excessively is extremely intense does not weaken over time or is shown in harmless situationsQualitative differences from the normSequence in which behaviour develops is not seen at all in normal growthEx Children become socially responsive to their care takers soon after birth but children diagnosed as autistic display unresponsive behaviours not seen in normal development such as lack of normal eye contactQualitatively diff behaviours indicate a pervasive problem in developmentCulture and EthnicityCulture groups of people are organized in specific ways live in specific environmental niches and share specific behavioural standards beliefs values and practicesCultural norms Ruth Benedict each society selects certain behaviours that are of value to it and socializes its members to act accordinglyindividuals who do not display these behaviours for whatever reason are considered deviant by the society
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