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Chapter 3

Ch.3 textbook notes for distance studies summer course

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Western University
Psychology 2042A/B
Alvin Segal

Chapter 3Biological and Environmental Contexts of PsychologyBrain and Nervous SystemBrain Development Biology and Experiencebrain area that controls voluntary movement grow substantially during first year of life whereas the frontal part involved in complex thinking spurts around ages 6 and 10 and in early adolescencedevelopment of neurons depends on interaction experiencePruning elimination of unneeded cells and connectionsStructureCentral nervous system brain and spinal cordPeripheral nervous system two subsystemssomatic system sensory organs and muscles engaged in sensing and voluntary movementautonomic system helps involuntary regulation of arousal and the emotionssympathetic system increase arousalparasympathetic system slow arousal and maintain bodily functioningEndocrine system collection of glands intricately involved in bodily functions through the release of hormones communicates with entire nervous systemBrain 3 Major DivisionsHindbrain pons medulla and cerebellumPons relays informationMedulla helps regulate heart function and breathingCerebellum movement and cognitive processingMidbrain contains fibers that connect the hindbrain and upper brain regionsShares with hindbrain the reticular activating systeminfluences arousal states such as waking and sleepingMidbrain and hindbrain are sometimes referred to as the brain stemForebrain Two cerebral hemispheres connected by the corpus callosumsensory processing motor control and higher mental functioning info processing learning and memoryCortex outer surfaceEach hemisphere contains four lobesSubcortical structures located below cerebral hemispheresThalamus processing and relaying info between the cerebral hemispheres and other parts of the CNSHypothalamus regulates basic urges such as hunger thirst and sexual activityLimbic system includes hippocampus and amygdala memory and emotionNeurotransmissionNeurons cell body dendrites and axonCommunication between neurons occurs across a synapse small gap btwn cells cleft synaptic gap1Dendrites receive chemical messages from other neurons that result in an electric impulse being sent down the axon 2Neurotransmitters are then released3Neurotransmitters cross the synaptic gap and are taken up by receptor sites on the dendrites of the receiving neuron4Receiving neuron in turn generates new electrical impulses
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