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Canada (161,583)
Psychology (4,887)
Chapter 4

Ch.4 textbook notes for distance studies summer course

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2042A/B
Professor
Alvin Segal
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 4Research Its Role and MethodsScientific understanding comes from systematic formulation of a problem observation and collection of data and interpretation of findings by what is considered acceptable proceduresAim of science is to describe phenomena and offer explanations for themFundamentals of ResearchDetermine causeandeffect relationshipsResearchers are usually guided by already established info concepts perspectives or theories and by their own inclinationsTheoretical concepts and assumptions guide research goal choice of variables procedures analyses and conclusionsHypothesis Testing testing specific hypotheses derived from theoretical notionsTends to build knowledge systematically rather than haphazardlyInvestigation provides evidence for or against the hypothesis rather than correct or incorrectSupported hypothesis strengthens accuracy and explanatory power of the underlying theoryUnsupported hypothesis serves to disapprove limit or redirect theorySelection of ParticipantsResearch reports require info description about the participants and how they were selectedBc the info is impt in judging the adequacy of investigations and interpretations of the findingsRepresentativeness best achieved by random selection of participants to get a representative sampleExtent to which representativeness is achieved affects the interpretation of research findingsIn studies of psychological disorders participants are drawn from clinics hospitals and other facilities serving youths with problems But such clinic problems are unlikely to represent the entire population of young people with disorders bc it can exclude people who cannot afford treatment in denial shame fear or high levels of adult toleranceSelection bias Clinic populations tend to overrepresent youths who experience more serious symptoms or who act out or otherwise disturb pplObservation and MeasurementEasy to observe and measure overt action but thought and emotion are more difficultOperational Definition Specific set of observable operations that are measurable and that allow one to define some concept Ex maternal deprivation defined by the amt of time the child is separated from its motherOperational definition of a behavior refers to the procedures or operations employed to define the behaviorReliability of Research ResultsReliability Data is similar or consistent if measurements were taken again under similar circumstancesConsistency and repeatability of resultsScientific method assumes that the truth reported results repeats itself given identical or similar conditions it can be observed again by othersIf same truth is not reported under similar conditions then original finding will be considered unreliable or inconsistent Scientists must conduct their study so that others may replicate and judge their workInterobserver reliability used to access the degree to which different ratersobservers give consistent estimates of the same phenomenon
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