Psychology 2060 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership, Contingency Theory

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Published on 20 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2060
Professor
Chapter 10- Leadership
What is leadership
1. emergence of leaders
2. effectiveness of leadership
Why leadership
-effective leadership enhance group process / job performance
organizational productivity and profitability
problem when studying leadership:
1. judge effective leader based on success of organization
charisma: ability to influence others simply by strengths
of character , popular and influential personality trait
romance of leadership phenomena: tendency attribute
organizational success actions of one particular leader
leadership increased trust in leader, satisfaction leader,
commitment to organization, turnover intent
behavioural outcomes organizational citizenship
behaviours (OCBs) likely when formal supervisor is good
leader
leadership associated with motivation, creativity
virtually every outcome variable in field of occupational
health psychology related to organizational leadership
History of Leadership Theories
Great Man Theories: earliest , leaders born not made and
emerge to suit needs of the day, gender issues were not well
recognized
Trait theories: physical/psychological characteristic
differenetiated leaders from non-leaders or good leaders from
poor leaders
leadership associated with height and intelligence
little evidence for universal traits that could predict
leadership
abandoned by 1950, re emerged
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Big Five: agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion,
neuroticism, and openness to experience
o there are individual characteristics personality,
intelligence, that predict both leadership emergence
and leadership effectiveness
o organizations had some control over leadership
emergence and effectiveness
Behavioural Theories: one could identify universal
characteristics of leaders that predicted effective leadership
identify specific behaviours that characterized effective
leaders
initiating structure: behaviours resulted in creation of
clear guidelines and procedures
setting clear goals, scheduling, defining standards of
performance
consideration: behaviours focused on people than on
task
concern for welfare of others build respect and trust
measured by Leader Behaviour Description
Questionnaire(LBDQ) rate frequency leader displayed list
of 40 behaviours
15 items consideration
10 scale were not scored
allowed: rate specific leader, their ideal leader,
themselves as a leader
Hypothesis 2 types of leadership behaviour
1. initiating structure would predict task performance while
consideration would predict employee attitudes and
satisfaction
2. most effective leadership style would involve high levels
of both initiating structure and consideration
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Problems from this approach:
1. correlation between initiating structure and
consideration was modest
2. sometimes two dimension negatively associated
optimal leadership rarely occurred
3. behaviours are moderately to strongly correlated with
attitudinal and more variables while initiating
structure was associated with task and group
performance
Contingency theories/situational : notion that different
leadership styles might be more effective under different
conditions
Fiedlers Contingency Theory: leaders who are task-
motivated or relationship motivated
o determined from least-preferred coworker scale
leaders are asked to rate coworker they like least
o rate on series of bipolar items ( unfriendly 1 2 3 4 5
friendly)
o task motivated individuals use more harsh descriptors
three aspects of situation:
1. quality of leader follower relationships
2. clarity of performance goals
3. formal authority / power relationships in workplace
o characteristics can be used to rate situation along
a dimension of favourableness
o task motivated leaders most effective in extreme
situations (favourable or unfavourable)
o relationship motivated leaders most effective in
moderately favourable situations
Path goal theory: based on premise leaders role is :
(a) to align goals of organization and followers
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Document Summary

What is leadership: emergence of leaders, effectiveness of leadership. Behavioural outcomes organizational citizenship behaviours (ocbs) likely when formal supervisor is good leader health psychology related to organizational leadership leadership associated with motivation, creativity virtually every outcome variable in field of occupational. Great man theories: earliest , leaders born not made and emerge to suit needs of the day, gender issues were not well recognized. Trait theories: physical/psychological characteristic differenetiated leaders from non-leaders or good leaders from poor leaders. Little evidence for universal traits that could predict leadership. Big five: agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience: there are individual characteristics personality, intelligence, that predict both leadership emergence and leadership effectiveness, organizations had some control over leadership emergence and effectiveness. Behavioural theories: one could identify universal characteristics of leaders that predicted effective leadership. Identify specific behaviours that characterized effective leaders. Initiating structure: behaviours resulted in creation of clear guidelines and procedures. Setting clear goals, scheduling, defining standards of performance.

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