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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Notes This is for Psych 2060, taken online, for the Muchinsky 9th Ed. textbook. These are very detailed and easy to understand notes on Chapter 1 that I made myself. Headings and bullets make it easy to read, and I assure you there is enough


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2060
Professor
Hayden Woodley
Chapter
5

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Chapter 5 – Personnel Decisions
The Social Context for Personnel Decision
- personnel decisions influenced by organizational values
oe.g. preference for hiring only applicants with superior
credentials
- organizations operate within a social or cultural context in which
they are embedded
- cultural differences in what makes for a desirable employee
oWestern cultures consider nepotism undesirable
viewed negatively
results in unequal opportunity among job applicants
onon-Western cultures consider nepotism desirable
family member is a known commodity to the
organization who can be trusted to be loyal and
hardworking
- some organizations hire personnel more intuitively as opposed to
scientifically
The Legal Context for Personnel Decisions
-protected groups: a designation for members of society who
are granted legal status by virtue of a demographic
characteristic such as race, gender, national origin, colour,
religion, age, and disability
-reasonable accommodation: employers are required to
modify or accommodate their business practices in a reasonable
fashion to meet the needs of disabled persons (e.g. installing
ramps for people in wheelchairs)
-adverse impact: a type of unfair discrimination in which the
result of using a particular personnel selection method has a
negative effect on protected group members compared with
majority group members, often contrasted with disparate
treatment
-bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ): a qualification
for a job that is reasonably necessary to the operation of that
particular business or enterprise
Recruitment
-recruitment: the process by which individuals are solicited to
apply for jobs
- recruitment and selection process is mutual, both parties are
engaged in assessing degree of fit with each other
-social validity: the quality of the selection process that makes
is acceptable to job applicants, like face validity but for a
selection process

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- applicants hold negative views of an organization for using what
was considered unfair procedures
- assessment processes are fair to the extent that they allow the
applicant the opportunity to perform
- applicant reactions to selection methods are positively related to
their willingness to recommend the employer to others
A Model of Personnel Decisions
- job and organizational analyses criteria and their
measurement; predictors and their measurement linkage
between predictors and criteria: validity design of recruitment
strategies selection systems and factors affecting their use
assessing the utility of selection systems
- the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology issued a
set of principles for the validation and use of personnel selection
procedures known as the Principles
odescribe choice, development, evaluation, and use of
personnel selection procedures designed to measure
constructs relating to work behaviour
oout line IO psychologists’ responsibilities to assist in
making fair and accurate personnel decisions
Regression Analysis
-regression analysis: a statistical procedure used to predict one
variable on the basis of another variable
- allows us to predict a person’s status on one variable (criterion)
based on his status on another variable (predictor)
- regression equation: Y = a + bX
oY = the predicted criterion score
oa = a numerical value reflecting where the regression line
intercepts the ordinate Y-axis)
ob = a numerical value reflecting the slope of the regression
line
oX = the predictor score for a given individual
- multiple predictors
omore of a criterion can be explained by using more
predictors
omultiple correlation: the degree of predictability
(ranging from o to 1.00) in forecasting one variable on the
basis of two or more other variables, symbolized by R
oR2 represents the total amount of variance in the criterion
that can be explain by two or more predictors

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oarea overlapping between predictor and criterion is the
validity
osubscript 1 stands for first predictor, subscript c stands for
the criterion
orare to get two predictors related to the same criterion that
are unrelated to each other
ointercorrelation between two predictors (r12) is not zero
oit is generally advisable to seek predictors that are related
to the criterion but are uncorrelated with each other
odifficult to do because variables that are predictive of a
criterion are usually predictive of each other
- multiple regression analysis
omultiple regression analysis: a statistical procedure
used to predict one variable on the basis of two or more
other variables
omultiple regressions equation: Y = a + b1X1 + b2X2 + +
bkXk
ob values are influence by the correlation among predictors
odegree of predictability afforded by the two predictors is
measured by the multiple correlation between the
predictors and the criterion
oif multiple correlation is large enough, use more than one
predictor
oregression equations with 4 or 5 predictors do a good job
as opposed to those with more, seeing as the variance
becomes very large after 5
Validity Generalization
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