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Chapter 9

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Western University
Psychology 2061A/B
Hayden Woodley

Chapter 9: Motivation (253-266) What is Work Motivation? Motivation: An internal set of discretionary, psychological processes that arouse, direct, and maintain attention and behaviour toward attaining a goal • Arousal: may be caused by unfilled need or some discrepancy between your current and desired or expected state • Direction: focus of the arousal, creating a goal and the resulting behaviour • Intensity: depends on the importance and attainability of the goal • these 3 impact our behaviour in 4 ways: • they focus our attention on a particular task, goal, or behaviour • they define the amount of effort we put into a task • how long we persist at that task • define our task strategies- affects the way we do the task and behaviour • motivation varies across and within individuals Target Behaviour of Motivation • may want to know how to motivate OCBs • prosocial motivation: primary concerns of managers can be work-task related (improving JP/productivity) but also broadly defined as • prosocial motivation Theories of Motivation • no agreed upon integrative theory for motivation • 3 C’s of workplace motivation • 1) content (person) • 2) context (situation) • 3) change (time) Needs Theory • based on the notion that people are striving to fulfill their needs, and this striving involves directed attention, effort, and persistence Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • 1943: Five categories of human need arranges in order of importance, such that when basic-level (lower level) needs are met, higher-level needs emerge and drive behaviour 1) Physiological Needs • basic elements of human survival (appetite, thirst, homeostasis) 2) Safety Needs • safe, orderly and predictable world. Motivated to avoid danger and pain 3)Love, Affection, and Belongingness needs • affectionate relationships, giving and receiving love, sense of belonging 4)Esteem Needs • self-esteem: desire for strength, adequacy, confidence, independence, freedom • esteem from others: prestige and gaining respect and appreciation 5) Self- Actualization Needs • desire to grow and develop in order to become everything one is capable of becoming • reaching self-actualization is uncommon in society • little research to support theory • criticized because lower level may be surpassed in order to achieve higher level McClelland’s (1961) Need Theory 1) The Need for Achievement • need to be successful and to avoid failure • people with high need pick moderately hard tasks • people with low pick easy tasks because of their fear of failure 2)The Need for Affiliation tendency to want to be liked or accepted by others and to strive for friendship • • high need: work well with others and avoid competition 3) The Need for Power • need to stand out publicly in some way, to do something important or to have influence over others • employees with high need for this likely to pursue their own goals than to work cooperatively with others • these needs can impact performance by directing attention, increasing effort, and increasing persistence • high need for achievement, high need for power and low affiliation= managerial role Putting McClelland’s Theory into Action • you would need to know an individual’s level of each need to provide appropriate motivators for them • theory may also suggest certain people (who have specific needs) may be better suited to particular jobs and job requirements Job Characteristics Theory (JCT) of Motivation • Proposed a model of work motivation that identifies the work conditions “under which individuals will become internally motivated to perform effectively” • developed to identify means of redesigning jobs to improve motivation • proposed employee motivation is a function of the interaction among job characteristics, employee char and employee’s psychological states • according to model job char (skill variety, task identity, significance, feedback) create three psychological states: • experienced meaningfulness of the work, experienced responsibility for the outcomes of the work, and knowledge of the actual results of the work activities • these lead to several beneficial personal and work outcomes (motivation, performance) • argue intrinsic motivation should be the highest when psychological states are all high • relationships moderated by employee growth and need strength • motivating potential scores (MPS) can be created for each job to determine the extent to which it can motivate employees MPS= (skill variety + task identity + task significance) x Autonomy x Feedback ------------------------------------------------------------ 3 • formula allows employers to see where changes need to be made • doesn’t focus on social fac
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