Textbook Notes (363,452)
Canada (158,372)
Psychology (4,731)
Chapter 102060

chapter 10 2060.doc

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 2061A/B
Hayden Woodley

Chapter 10: Leadership (275-285) (288-293) What is Leadership? 1) sometimes used to refer to the emergence of leaders 2) used to refer to the retaliative effectiveness of leadership Why Leadership? • most believe leadership related to other outcomes • believe effective leadership leads to higher job performance and organizational productivity and profitability • problems: • end up evaluating leadership success on how well the organization is doing • Charisma of leaders: the ability to influence others simply by strength of character; refers to being popular and influential and is often thought as a personality trait • cannot predict organizations financial performance • romance of leadership tendency: attribute org success to one leader leadership related to increased trust in leader, commitment, turnover intent, OCB, • motivation, creativity, performance at all levels A Brief History of Leadership Theories Great Man Theories • early approach to understanding leadership by studying the lives and careers of “great men” • reading biographies and accounts of their lives Trait Theories: Leadership theories that focused on the identification of enduring characteristics of leaders (traits) that predicted effectiveness in a leadership role • some empirical support for this approach • little evidence for universal traits that could predict leadership • important breakthrough still as suggested organizations had some control over leadership emergence and effectiveness • if one could identify the “traits” of effective leaders then one could simply select new leaders who had same traits Behavioural Theories • Leadership theories emerging from the ohio State studies that identified two dimensions (initiating structure) and (consideration) of effective leadership behaviour • Initiating Structure: Comprised behaviours that resulted in the creation of clear guidelines and procedures (setting clear goals, scheduling, defining standards of performance) • Consideration: referred to behaviours that were more focused on people than on task (showing concern for well-being) • both leadership styles measured by: Leader behaviour Description Questionnaire (LDQ): The measure developed at Ohio State to assess initiating structure and consideration • rate frequency in which leader demonstrated things on list • rate a) specific leader • b)ideal leader • c)themselves as a leader problems: • correlation between initiative and consideration quite low • suggest optimal leader didn’t exist in organizations • lack of consistency across studies led to researchers disregarding behavioural approach in favour of a contingent one • consideration correlated with attitudes and morale variables • initiating structure with task and group performance Contingency Theories • Theory that categorizes leaders into task motivated or relationship motivated Fiedler’s Contingency Theory • first true contingency theory of leadership • categorization developed from: • Least-preferred coworker scale: A measure used in Fiedler’s contingency theory. Users were asked to rate that characteristics of the coworker they least liked • Relationship Motivated: thought to describe coworker in more positive terms, best in moderately favorable situations • Task Motivated:harsh descriptions, most effective in extreme situations • Theory goes beyond to consider 3 aspects of the situation: • 3 can be used to rate the situation along levels of favorableness • good empirical support • can have lack of consistency 1)the quality of leader-follower relations 2)the clarity of performance goals 3)the formal authority or power relationships in the work-place Path-Goal Theory • Theory based on the premise that the leader’s role is: a) to align the goals of the organization and the followers • • b) to help followers achieve those goals • help by clarifying paths to goals suggested 4 leadership styles of behavior that can be used to motivate followers • • Participative Leadership: engaging followers in decision making and inviting feedback • Supportive Leadership: demonstrating concern for the needs of followers • Directive Leadership: providing task structure, clear goals, and contingent feedback • Achievement-orientated Leadership: Setting high standards for performance and challenging followers to achieve these standards • says effectiveness varies according to environmental, job, and follower characteristics • mixed support for theory complex • Substitutes for Leadership Theory • Makes leadership a moot point by “substituting” for any potential effects of leadership • two types
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2061A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.