Psychology 2062A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Internal Validity, External Validity, Stress Management

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Chapter 1: The Study of Educational Psychology
Human Behaviour: individual’s section in a given situation, follows patterns and its
usually predictable
- it can be predicted by a reaction to external events
Characteristics of the classroom environment that the teacher plays a role in:
-multidimensionality: has to deal with different aspects and types of behaviour
-simultaneity: all the types of behaviour are happening at the same time
-immediacy: reaction must occur when the student’s behaviour occurs
-unpredictability
-public nature of the classroom: everyone sees what the teacher does
-history: students can anticipate what a teacher is going to do
Epistemology: a student’s attitude or belief about the nature of knowledge and learning
Transactional model of the teaching-learning process: shows the different factors that
add up to influence student achievement, this includes things like the behaviours and
characteristics of students and teachers
Mayer (1999): identified the following factors in the teaching-learning process
1. instructional manipulations such as group work
2. learner characteristics such as strategies for learning
3. learning processes such as organizing info
4. learning outcomes such as memorization
5. outcome performance such as retention as reflected on a test
Tuckman (1999): motivation was comprised of three components
1. attitude such as beliefs on how one will do a task
2. drive such as desire to get a certain outcome
3. strategy such as the way to get to the end
Basic assumptions on how good classroom management is built:
1. students are likely to follow rules they understand and accept
2. discipline problems will decrease when students are engaged in meaningful
activities that they are interested in and are at their aptitudes
3. management should be approached by trying to establish a productive
environment rather then a negative one from stress of control of misbehaviour
4. the teachers goal is to develop inner self- control in students, not control over
them
Behavioural approach: explaining behaviour on the basis of its consequences
Cognitive approach: explaining behaviour on the basis of thinking
Resnick (1987): showed the comparison between learning in school which focuses on
individual performance (evaluated and learn by themselves) where in the real-world has
more focus on social shared performance since people work in teams, another
comparison is that school promotes learning entirely in the head where in the real-world
you use cognitive tools like calculators, finally he compares how school learning focuses
on general skills where the real world is very situation- specific
Ecological Model: believe that the following are characteristics of a good teacher:
-concern for students learning
-ability to communicate clearly
-ability to create a positive learning environment
-knowledge of the content
-skills in teaching
-ability to organize and plan effectively
-high expectations for oneself and students
John Dewey: advocate for considering effects of environment of a given behaviour and
created the ecological approach
Ecological approach: studying an individuals behaviour within the context of his or her
environment, characteristics of a good teacher= knowledge of subject matter, effective
communication skills ect., characteristics of educational setting= classroom size, number
of students ect.
Framework for teaching: created by Danielson in 1996, identified 22 activities and
clustered them into the following four domains
1.planning and prep – how organizes lessons, goals, ect
2.the classroom environment- how manages interactions, build rapport
3.instruction- engaging in learning, variety ect
4.professional responsibilities- maintaining records, communications with fame
ct.
Reflective teaching: process of asking questions about your teaching and attempting to
identify answers
Reflection-in-action: created by Schon, said it is important when you are confronted by
something unexpected or out of the ordinary
Principles of Science: observation, testability, replication, parsimony
Observation: process of recording something
Testable questions: questions must be falsifiable or capable of being disproved
Replication: conducting numerous, independent studies and collecting info over a period
of time to judge whether results are consistent
Parsimony: simplicity, the simpler of two competing theories is the preferable one
Principles: expand on and connect several facts, help create meaning and establish
associations between facts
Theories: collection of principles
Focus on theories bases: 1. theories are comprehensive or inclusive
2. because they are so broad-based, only a small number of theories need to be learned
3. theories are speculative or explanatory and can be used to explain
Expert teacher: individual who plans effective instruction, maintains an effective
learning atmosphere and anticipates and reflects on how classroom issues are handled
Induction: when specific facts are used to create more general theories that explain those
facts
Deduction: when general theories are used to create specific facts that will help test those
theories
Paradigm: design or framework that can be used repeatedly for testing the relationships
within a set of variables or factors that affect behaviour
Internal validity: effects judgements, confidence held in the conclusion that a teacher or
researchers action rather than some other variable has caused a student to behave or
perform differently
External validity: the ability to have conclusions apply again under other circumstances
Experimental research: impact or effect of one variable or facot on another variable or
factor is studied
Requirements of experimental research: 1. make the independent variable happen by
manipulation
2. include a control group
3.except for the treatment, treat the experimental and control groups the same
4.assign subjects randomly to experimental and control groups
5.keep participants unaware of what group they are in
Single-subject research: participants are compared with themselves rather than with
members of a control group, involves a minimum for two necessary phases; baseline and
treatment ex a-b/a-b-a/a-b-a-b
Baseline phase: measures the subjects behaviour under typical or ordinary,
circumstances (a)
Treatment phase: the researcher measures the subjects behaviour under the special
circumstances that the researcher is interested in studying (b)
Correlation research: researcher collects 2 or more sets of data from a group of
participants for analysis and then attempts to determine the relationship between them,
correlation doesn’t necessarily imply causation
Correlation coefficient: measure of the degree of relationship between 2 scores or extent
to which one score predicts the other
Participant observation: when a researcher participates in observational research, the
individual is called this
Teacher research: systematic intentional inquiry by teachers about their own school and
classroom work , typically observational
Observational research features: 1. it is done in natural setting
2. researcher is the key data collection instrument
3.it is concerned as much more with events that transpire than with product
4. data are analyzed inductively by trying to make sense of what they mean
5. focus is on why events occur as well as what happens
Familismo: typically from tight-knit families, latinos don’t talk about family matters
with people who arnt their family
Simpatia: students from latino cultures places more valure on being in harmony with
others
Respeto: tendency exists in latino cultures to express more respect and deference to
persons in positions of authority
Personalismo: teachers acting in a detached professional manner with students may
seem strange to latino students