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Chapter 1

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Western University
Psychology 2062A/B
Patrick Brown

Chapter 1: The Study of Educational Psychology Human Behaviour: individual’s section in a given situation, follows patterns and its usually predictable - it can be predicted by a reaction to external events Characteristics of the classroom environment that the teacher plays a role in: -multidimensionality: has to deal with different aspects and types of behaviour -simultaneity: all the types of behaviour are happening at the same time -immediacy: reaction must occur when the student’s behaviour occurs -unpredictability -public nature of the classroom: everyone sees what the teacher does -history: students can anticipate what a teacher is going to do Epistemology: a student’s attitude or belief about the nature of knowledge and learning Transactional model of the teaching-learning process: shows the different factors that add up to influence student achievement, this includes things like the behaviours and characteristics of students and teachers Mayer (1999): identified the following factors in the teaching-learning process 1. instructional manipulations such as group work 2. learner characteristics such as strategies for learning 3. learning processes such as organizing info 4. learning outcomes such as memorization 5. outcome performance such as retention as reflected on a test Tuckman (1999): motivation was comprised of three components 1. attitude such as beliefs on how one will do a task 2. drive such as desire to get a certain outcome 3. strategy such as the way to get to the end Basic assumptions on how good classroom management is built: 1. students are likely to follow rules they understand and accept 2. discipline problems will decrease when students are engaged in meaningful activities that they are interested in and are at their aptitudes 3. management should be approached by trying to establish a productive environment rather then a negative one from stress of control of misbehaviour 4. the teachers goal is to develop inner self- control in students, not control over them Behavioural approach: explaining behaviour on the basis of its consequences Cognitive approach: explaining behaviour on the basis of thinking Resnick (1987): showed the comparison between learning in school which focuses on individual performance (evaluated and learn by themselves) where in the real-world has more focus on social shared performance since people work in teams, another comparison is that school promotes learning entirely in the head where in the real-world you use cognitive tools like calculators, finally he compares how school learning focuses on general skills where the real world is very situation- specific Ecological Model: believe that the following are characteristics of a good teacher: -concern for students learning -ability to communicate clearly -ability to create a positive learning environment -knowledge of the content -skills in teaching -ability to organize and plan effectively -high expectations for oneself and students John Dewey: advocate for considering effects of environment of a given behaviour and created the ecological approach Ecological approach: studying an individuals behaviour within the context of his or her environment, characteristics of a good teacher= knowledge of subject matter, effective communication skills ect., characteristics of educational setting= classroom size, number of students ect. Framework for teaching: created by Danielson in 1996, identified 22 activities and clustered them into the following four domains 1.planning and prep – how organizes lessons, goals, ect 2.the classroom environment- how manages interactions, build rapport 3.instruction- engaging in learning, variety ect 4.professional responsibilities- maintaining records, communications with fame ct. Reflective teaching: process of asking questions about your teaching and attempting
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