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Chapter 5


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Psychology 2062A/B
Patrick Brown

Exceptionalities: expands disability to included giftedness and talent by looking at who these people are and why they are exceptional and what laws govern their education Exceptional learners: students behaviour or learning abilities vary enough from the average or norm to requite some form of special or individualized programs or services Special education: programs in k-12 schools designed to meet special needs Classification: recognizing a students special needs Curriculum-based assessment: students are classified in terms of the degree to which they are learning a specific curriculum content Individuals with disabilities education act: law passed that is intended to assure that all children with disabilities have available to them special education and related services designed to meet their needs and to provide federal funds to cover part of the cost of its mandates Special education: programs designed to teach persons with disabilities the skills required for independent and successful functioning, skills can be academic/vocational/personal/social Individualized education program: developed and implemented for every student with disabilities, writing process burdens teachers with an excessive amount of paperwork that ultimately provides few benefits for children, covered educational needs, special education and measurable goals and short term objectives Least restrictive environment: learners with disabilities be educated with no disabled learners to the extent possible, except in cases where the nature of the disability would not allow satisfactory results to be achieved Inclusion: process of educating learners with exceptionalities in regular classrooms Groups in classes: heterogeneous grouping, sense of belonging to a group, shared activities with individualized outcomes, use of environments frequented by persons without disabilities, a balanced education experience Defining giftedness: general intellectual capability, specific academic aptitude, creative or productive thinking, leadership ability, ability in the visual or performing arts, psychomotor ability Identifiers of giftedness: ability to acquire and retain knowledge, ability to apply and comprehend knowledge, ability to generate knowledge, ability to motivate oneself Acceleration: speeding up the pace at which the student moves through the curriculum Enrichment: adding material to a courses curriculum to go deeper into the material or to make it richer perhaps with more individualized or independent projects,3 different kinds Curriculum compacting: compressing a course curriculum by removing redundant or previously learned material, leaving more time for students to work on more challenging aspects of the subject Resource room program: where gifted students are taken out of their regular classrooms for special instruction, usually by instructors with special training Type 1 enrichment” where students experience a topic in more depth in order to build their interest in it Type 11 enrichment: where students are trained in higher-level thinking skills, along with research and reference-using skills Type 111 enrichment: where students work independently or with other students to apply what they have learned to the investigation of real problems Revolving-door model: identification and instruction of gifted and talented students to be used in combination with the 3 types of enrichment described above Scoring of mental retardation: scores on tests of intelligence and adaptive behaviour, two or more standard deviations below the average for students of the same age Mental retardation: sub-average general intellectual functioning resulting in or adaptive with deficits in adaptive behaviour and manifested during the developmental period Biological causes of mental retardation: 67% brain damage from metabolic disorders, head injuries ect Environmental causes of mental retardation: psychosocial disadvantage, poor social and cultural environment in early life Functional curriculum: skills students need in order to function independently when they are 21 Life skills: skills students with mental retardation will need to carry out activities in the six domains of adult functioning; employment, home and family life, leisure ect. Self-determination: learning how to take responsibility for ones own learning Applied behaviour analysis: an instructional technique that can be used effectively to teach students with mental retardation Diagnosis of learning disability: determination of a severe discrepancy between the students intellectual ability and academic achievement, absence of any other known condition present in student that could cause learning problems and necessity for special education services Learning disability: disorder in one or more of the basic psychologica
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