Psychology 2062A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Direct Instruction, Medical Test, Mastery Learning

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2062A/B
Professor
Ganes model: system of learning and instruction developed by him that focuses on
processes/events/outcomes, 3 parts; conditions before learning, conditions during
learning and outcomes after learning
Processes: phase that learners go through while learning meaningful material
Outcomes: specific competencies to be acquired as a result of learning
Events: what must occur in order for learning to proceed successfully
Motivation: incentive motivation in which the learner strives to reach some goal and
then receives something for the result
Short term memory: memory of limited capacity, and limited time can hold
Rehearsal: repeating stored material over and over
Chucking: combining units into groups or clusters
Cues: used to recall something previously learning
Semantic encoding: process of organizing new info meaningfully to make it more
memorable
Transfer: being able to perform in a variety of situations
Objective: aim of instruction, expectancy for the end state of learning
Distinctive features: new stimulus info that is required by an objective and that students
can perceive and retain
Events of instruction:1. gaining attention 2. informing the learner of the objective (aim)
3. learner has already mastered essential skills 4. presenting stimulus 5. providing
learning guidance 6. eliciting performance –combining components of the learning task
actually be carried out by the learner 7. providing feedback. 8. assessing performance
9.enchancing retention and transfer
Integrating instructions: semantically encoding combined new and old information
Verbal information: made up of facts that have been learned and remembered and that
can be recalled later
Declarative knowledge: a unit of verbal information such as a fact, an idea of a
connection between facts
Propositions: ideas that represent knowledge
Intellectual skills: represent knowing how to do something, five kinds, represent how to
do something, discriminations, concrete concepts, defined concepts, rules and higher
order rules
Procedural knowledge: enables the learner to convert problems into solutions
Discriminations: represent the ability to distinguish one feature of an object or symbol
from another
Concrete concepts: ability to identify, name or label objects and events
Defined concepts: provide definitions for objects, object qualities and relations between
objects
Rules: represent the ability to do something rather than simply describe how it is done,
make it possible to connect a class of objects
Higher-order rules: complex rules made up of combinations of simple rules
Executive control: cognitive strategies used to manage the learning process
Attitudes: represent preference
Affective domain: the area of feelings
Cognitive domain: the area of ideas
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Document Summary

Ganes model: system of learning and instruction developed by him that focuses on processes/events/outcomes, 3 parts; conditions before learning, conditions during learning and outcomes after learning. Processes: phase that learners go through while learning meaningful material. Outcomes: specific competencies to be acquired as a result of learning. Events: what must occur in order for learning to proceed successfully. Motivation: incentive motivation in which the learner strives to reach some goal and then receives something for the result. Short term memory: memory of limited capacity, and limited time can hold. Semantic encoding: process of organizing new info meaningfully to make it more memorable. Transfer: being able to perform in a variety of situations. Objective: aim of instruction, expectancy for the end state of learning. Distinctive features: new stimulus info that is required by an objective and that students can perceive and retain. Integrating instructions: semantically encoding combined new and old information.

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