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Psychology (4,729)
Chapter 12


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Western University
Psychology 2062A/B
Patrick Brown

Ganes model: system of learning and instruction developed by him that focuses on processes/events/outcomes, 3 parts; conditions before learning, conditions during learning and outcomes after learning Processes: phase that learners go through while learning meaningful material Outcomes: specific competencies to be acquired as a result of learning Events: what must occur in order for learning to proceed successfully Motivation: incentive motivation in which the learner strives to reach some goal and then receives something for the result Short term memory: memory of limited capacity, and limited time can hold Rehearsal: repeating stored material over and over Chucking: combining units into groups or clusters Cues: used to recall something previously learning Semantic encoding: process of organizing new info meaningfully to make it more memorable Transfer: being able to perform in a variety of situations Objective: aim of instruction, expectancy for the end state of learning Distinctive features: new stimulus info that is required by an objective and that students can perceive and retain Events of instruction:1. gaining attention 2. informing the learner of the objective (aim) 3. learner has already mastered essential skills 4. presenting stimulus 5. providing learning guidance 6. eliciting performance –combining components of the learning task actually be carried out by the learner 7. providing feedback. 8. assessing performance 9.enchancing retention and transfer Integrating instructions: semantically encoding combined new and old information Verbal information: made up of facts that have been learned and remembered and that can be recalled later Declarative knowledge: a unit of verbal information such as a fact, an idea of a connection between facts Propositions: ideas that represent knowledge Intellectual skills: represent knowing how to do something, five kinds, represent how to do something, discriminations, concrete concepts, defined concepts, rules and higher order rules Procedural knowledge: enables the learner to convert problems into solutions Discriminations: represent the ability to distinguish one feature of an object or symbol from another Concrete concepts: ability to identify, name or label objects and events Defined concepts: provide definitions for objects, object qualities and relations between objects Rules: represent the ability to do something rather than simply describe how it is done, make it possible to connect a class of objects Higher-order rules: complex rules made up of combinations of simple rules Executive control: cognitive strategies used to manage the learning process Attitudes: represent preference Affective domain: the area of feelings Cognitive domain: the area of ideas Motor skills: precise, accurate movements involving our muscles that enable us to accomplish some task Executive control: strategies including self-guidance and self-monitoring Instructional planning model: classifying goals, preparing instructional objectives, developing instructional activities and choosing media, ensure tests are based on the same material Bloom’s taxonomy: classification system of the categories of the cognitive domain, organized into levels. 6 main cat
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