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Chapter 3

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Psychology 2062A/B
Patrick Brown

Chapter #3- Moral, Personal, and Psychosocial Development Honesty is the Best Policy Psychosocial development: is the process by which a person’s sense of self emerges as the result of the interaction between his or her social and personal side -Individual development takes place in a social context -Includes: the development of feelings, attitudes, beliefs and values Piaget’s Developmental Stages of Moral Judgment Moral Development: the mechanism why which children and adolescent learn the difference between right and wrong Moral Judgment: children’s conceptions of rules and the respect that children acquire for these rules -Piaget studied the game of marbles, most popular children’s game of his day -He constructed stories that contained an immoral act such as a lie, but varied in intentionality Intentionality: whether or not an immoral act was intended to deceive someone He asked children to tell him which child was naughtier and why A. Little boy goes for a walk, sees a dog and tells mom the dog was as big as a cow B. Child comes home from school tells his mom teacher gave his good marks, but no marks were given Stage 1- Moral Realism (age 2-7) Moral Realism: stages in which rules are taken literally and absolutely and must be respected Objective Responsibility: being responsible for one’s transgressions, regardless of the intentions behind them -Bigger the lie the worse it is -Rules are a reality of the outside, adult world, child has a sense of duty to follow them Heteronomous Morality: morals are regarded as sacred and fixed, as created and being handed down by authority figures and as being alterable only by authority figures -In marbles, each child plays for themselves rather than competing with companions; each rarely looks at the other, strives to imitate an elder model rather than engage in socially interactive activity -Ais worse, the more outrageous the lie, the worse it is regardless of intention; dog as big of a cow could not happen; the worse the result, the worse the crime, worse crime, worse punishment should be Expiatory punishment: punishment that is strong and arbitrary and thereby allows the wrongdoer to expiate or pay penance for rule breaking -Painful punishment is expected to deter further rule breaking; store of the bread child should not go to the fair as a punishment-most severe Alittle kid moves door knock over 15 cups B. Kid tries to get jam breaks one Age 6: George picksAbecause he knocked over 15 Age 10: Nuss picks jam, because he didn’t need the jam, the 15 was not on purpose, trying to do something bad Retributive Justice: punishment is morally necessary to make up or pay for the transgression and thus to prevent a relapse (an eye or an eye) Adult Restraint: child’s perception that adult authority imposes the respect for given order and rules and that laws themselves must be avenged when broken -Automatic punishments, you do something back something bad will happen to you Ex. Eating candy you were not suppose to have and you get a stomach ache Stage 2- Mutuality (ages 7-11) Mutuality: equality, reciprocity and cooperation between people -Golden rule; do unto others what you would have them do unto you -Sharing when only one person has something or when everyone has something expect one person -When one person who wrongs another must be punished or made to give back what they have taken -Punishment is a way of treating everyone the same and storing equality Distributive Justice: a way of treating everyone the same and restoring equality; punishment is neither automatics and absolute nor a means of making one pay for one’s sins Ex. Mutuality: If teacher doesn’t know who threw the ball, then no one can be punished because it wouldn’t be fair Moral Realism: requires everyone be punished because there must be punishment at all cost even if it strikes the innocent as well as the guilty -Children are sensitive to intentionality -People who lie about good marks is worse, was intended to mislead the mom -Should be reciprocity between the punishment and the crime -The punishment is designed to ‘fit the crime’showing that children at this stage realize the social consequences of their actions Stage 3- Autonomy (ages 11-15) -Interest in rules as a code of conduct and in codifying all possibilities Autonomy: stage in which rules are seen as social conventions set by mutual agreement and changeable through mutual agreement Autonomous Morality: morals are regarded as rational parts of a system of legality and are seen as made by people and able to be changed by people Equity: not automatically treating everyone exactly the same but rather taking into account each individual’s particular circumstances -Factors depending on age, size of contribution and needs Moral: get punished Mutuality: isn’t fair Autonomy: it isn’t fair for those who can learn but those who cant learn ought to be allowed to have a look Equity: Moral: big boy should have most Mutuality: must all have equal Autonomy: little boy should have more because he is smaller Idea of unfairness develops from: • Moral realism or behavior forbidden by either adults or rules of the game • Mutuality or behavior that goes against equality • Equity or acts of economic or political injustice connected with adult society Moral Realist: forbidden acts are lying stealing fighting and breaking things Mutuality: inequalities might be giving something better to one than other, punishing worse than other hitting someone who has done nothing to you Autonomy Stage: teacher preferring a student because she is more clever than others, students leaving other students out of their games because they are not well dressed ARelatedApproach Selman: Level 0 (age 3-6): children confuse their own perspectives with those of others, they are egocentric Level 1 (5-9) realize that other children have social thoughts and feelings different from their own but are unable to understand them Level 2 (7-12) they consider and reflect on other’s attitudes and feelings but are unable to consider their and others feelings at the same time Level 3 (10-15) they view their own and other childrens thoughts mutually and simultaneously Level 4 (adolescence- adulthood) recognize a general social viewpoint exists that goes beyond the perspectives of the individual child Kohlberg’s Developmental Stages of Moral Reasoning Moral Reasoning: stages of reasoning achieved by encountering moral dilemmas Moral Dilemmas: situations in which a choice must be made between two desirable or two undesirable alternatives where no choice is either absolutely right nor wrong Level 1- Preconventional Moral Reasoning -young children’s right or wrong is based on doing what is good for them, what is good for them is primarily avoiding punishment -Ok to steald rug if you think you can get away with it, no okay if you will get caught Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation: limited in their own actions only by dear of punishment, do not act out of sense of duty or because of personal values, when the likelihood of punishment is perceived slight, they will do anything to please them -Without appropriate role models some children may never leave this stage, their behavior remains uncontrolled except by threat of severe punishment -Good means what you can get away with, bad means what you cannot Stage 2: Personal-Reward Orientation: You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours -good is still whats good for me-personal need and satisfaction -Might strike up a deal with the druggist or law enforcement to look the other way -engaged in organized crime Level 2- Conventional Moral Reasoning -with a focus on the social perspective in child takes into consideration the viewpoints of others -Doing what is expected of her, doing her duty, doing what will please others, gaining social acceptance -Adherence to: traditional values, law, order loyalty to others and society Stage 3: Good-Person Orientation: emphasis on 1) being nice 2) being approved 3) pleasing others 4) performing appropriate behavior 5) fulfilling mutual expectation 6) conforming -Ok for man to steal drug because he is helping his wife Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation: morality is oriented toward: 1) respecting author 2) doing one’s duty 3) maintaining social order for its own sake -awareness of social, national and religious values that extend beyond the family and friends -Doing the right thing, laws and rules are upheld -Stealing the drug is wrong under any circumstance Level 3- Postconventional Moral Reasoning Stage 5: Social-Contract Orientation: laws are necessary rather than absolute -They reflect social consensus or agreement among people to maintain social standards and to protect individual rights -Because laws are consensual rather than handed down, they may be changed democratically, not carved in stone -Enable people to live in harmony and maintain a sense of community while not transcending such individuals freedoms, law unjust- it is changed, law serves people Stage 6: Univesal-Ethical- Principle Orientation- Reached by Jesus, Ghandi, Martin Luther, sacrifice their lives to stand up for principles -Right is abstract and ethical Limitations 1­ Moral reasoning and behaving morally are not the same thing -Inconvenience, personal risk, gender role, perspective taking that enter into moral decisions 2­ There is an inevitable overlapping between stages, and well as people moving backwards 3­ Theory is based in favor of Western cultures particularly among highest social and educational levels Issue of Gender -Gilligan contends that women and men differ in approached to making moral decisions -Male; morality of justice because individuals have certain basic rights that have to be respected morality imposed moral restrictions what a person can do -Female; morality of caring, because people have responsibilities towards others, morality makes it critical to care for others She proposed 4 stages in moral development of women: Selfish Morality: stage in which female children focus exclusively on themselves Conventional Morality: where female children progress from selfish to social morality Social Morality: stage in which female children believe it is wrong to act in their own interests rather than in the interests of others Principled Morality: learn that neither their own or others’interests should be ignored -While masculinity is define through separation and independence, femininity is defined through attachment; males threatened by intimacy women threatened by separation -Girls lose their willingness to express their views in setting where students of both genders are present Enha
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