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Chapter 9

SocialPsych - Chapter9Notes

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Western University
Psychology 2070A/B

Chapter Nine Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination Prejudice a negative attitude towards members of a group, often which is strongly held Prejudges the target Discrimination negative, harmful behaviour toward people based on their group membership A behaviour Genocide an attempt to systematically eliminate an ethnic group through banishment or murder Negative stereotypes can provide the basis for prejudice and discrimination Prejudice and Discrimination Today People express unfavourable implicit attitudes towards disadvantaged groups but are not consciously aware of these negative automatic processes Old fashioned blatant discrimination has been replaced by more subtly and ambiguous discrimination Aversive racism modern kind of prejudice held by people who do not consider themselves prejudiced and who would find any accusation about being prejudiced aversive (unpleasant) They still harbour negative beliefs and hostile feelings toward members of minority groups If an excuse for discriminatory behaviour is present negative treatment is justifiable and more apparent Concluded that some majority group members continue to harbour prejudice against minority groups Implicit Assocaitons Test indirect measure of racial attitudes Facial EMD physiological measure of prejudice Stereotypes: Cognitive Sources of Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice is the byproduct of normal human thinking processes o Key element in the cognitive view of prejudice is stereotypes Stereotypes are one kind of schema those that represent human groups o Schemas going beyond the information given Stereotypes efficiently provide us with information about target persons that can guide behaviour; allow us to make rapid inferences about target persons Two Costs of Stereotypes: Oversimplification and Negativity Assume too much uniformity or similarity within groups of people o Humans tend not to be uniform or predictable Stereotypes of large groups are oversimplified and when applied to a particular individual are inaccurate o Some can be true, but will never be applied to the WHOLE group Stereotypes are unfavourable contain negative traits o Competition the idea of a specific group that the perceivers group is competing against will become negative o Being in a bad mood leads perceivers to interpret their stereotypes of minority groups negatively o Unfamiliarity leads to a negative stereotype of a minority group Uncomfortable and anxious interactions with this group leads to dislike for them or avoid interactions altogether Stereotypes Distort Information Processing People are not open and unbiased processers of information related to stereotypes Will not give them a chance to change their opinion Stereotypes Distort Information Processing Distort information processing: o Affecting what perceivers notice about members of a stereotyped group Find information that confirms stereotype o Stereotypes can bias attention Ex. if a defendant is Hispanic most people will believe he did the crime because of the stereotype Hispanic American men are aggressive Stereotypes Guide Interpretation Distort information processing affecting how perceivers interpret the behaviour of people in the group Behaviours that do not support a stereotype will strengthen it Stereotypes can affect the interpretation of ambiguous behaviour Differential interpretations reflected knowledge of a cultural stereotype rather than personal prejudice Correll and his colleagues had a disturbing aspect in their experiment of errors: o Unarmed target - when saw a black man participants were more likely to push the shoot button o Unarmed target when saw a white man participants were more likely to push the dont shoot button In another variation of the experiment, black people even erroneously interpreted unarmed black targets as armed more than white targets Errors occurred because stereotypes distorted how the situation was interpreted...not because of the prejudices held against them Stereotype: white skin is more valued than black skin black and white girls pick white skinned dolls The Potential Vicious Cycle of Stereotypes Stereotypes provide a guide of how to behave toward people Self-fulfilling Prophecies Sequence of events: Perceivers stereotype or expectancy about a target influences the perceivers behaviour toward the target The perceivers behaviour toward the target then elicits the expected behaviour from the target Self-fulfilling prophecy perceiver acted in such a way to make his or her own prophecy come true Word, Zanna, Cooper conducted interviews on white and black people White applicants were exposed to more favourable and nonverbal behaviours than black people White interviews will treat black and white applicants differently Stereotypes can produce expectancies about a target individual then alters the perceivers actions in ways that elicit the expected behaviour of the target Negative stereotypes create cycles of prejudice and discrimination against disadvantaged groups People can fight self-fulfilling prophecies If targets are aware of the expectations someone has for them they can work to disprove it Most people are unaware of expectations People can choke when trying to disprove a negative stereotype Do Stereotypes Influence Our Perceptions If We Disagree with Them? (GO OVER!) Subliminal priming procedure a method of activating a schema or stereotype by flashing words or pictures very briefly on a computer screen in front of a participant Implicit Intergroup Bias Implicit intergroup bias distorted judgements about members of a group based on a stereotype, which can occur without the persons awareness Implicit not deliberate Intergroup b
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