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Chapter 12

SocialPsych - Chapter12Notes

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Psychology 2070A/B

Chapter 12Helpful Social BehaviourHelping BehaviourHelpingbehaviour that is intended to assist another persono Ex hold a door open for a stranger give directions with asked getting a car out of the snow offering words of adviceProsocial behaviourany action that provides a benefit to otherso Has helping but can include actions that are not intended to help others o Ex following rules in a game being honestTypes of HelpingHelping can be divided into four different categories o Casual helpinginvolve strangerso Emotional helpinginvolve family and friendso Emergency helpinginvolve strangerso Substantial personal helpinginvolve family and friends Helping behaviours can vary in three major ways o Degree to which helping is planned or formal vs spontaneous or informalEx taking delinquents to the zoo vs giving someone directions o Seriousness of the problem o Distinction between giving what you have and doing what you canEx giving what you have donating money to a charityEx doing what you can pick up a package for a friendRelation of dimensions to different types of helping o Casual helping unplanned and not serious can involve giving what you have and doing what you can o Emergency helpingunplanned and serious always involves doing what you cano Substantial personal helpingplanned and serious can involve give what you have and doing what you cano Emotional helpingplanned and either serious or not serious involves doing what you canAltruism vs EgoismWhy individuals help othersHelp Others and Help YourselfConsequence of helping others is that it makes you feel good too Helping is associated with rewards and other positive outcomes Not helping associated with punishments and other negative outcomes Egotistic motivation a motive for helping others to obtain rewards and avoid punishmentso Prosocial actions are drive by our selfcentered desire to obtain rewards and avoid punishments End goal of helping is to gain some benefit for the selfHelping Others for Others SakeSometimes the intent of the helper is to benefit another without the regard for personal rewards or punishments Altruistic motivation a motive for helping purely for the sake of providing a benefit to another persono Concerned more about the welfare of another person than about himselfo No desire to gain social approval or selfsatisfaction Hard to define the reason for peoples helpingThe Evolution of AltruismInclusive fitnessthe principle that some social behaviours have been selected during the course of evolution because they increase the survival of our geneso Ex father who rescues his daughter is improving the odds that some of his own genes will surviveo Explain why people are willing to sacrifice their own personal resources in favour of genetic relatives Provide more social support to close relatives than distant relativesHumans have evolved to behave in ways that uphold systems of cooperation among members of a band or larger groupo Helping occurs because systems of cooperation benefit everybody in a groupEmpathy might be the motivational mechanism for altruistic behaviourEmpathythe ability to comprehend how another person is experiencing a situationo Empathy for someone in need increase the likelihood that an individual will be helpful to that personFeel empathy towards others who are similar to us and familiar because we it makes it easier to imagine the feeling and makes it easier to put ourselves in their shoeso More empathy to ingroup members and kin EmpathyAltruism HypothesisHelping triggered by empathy is altruisticEmpathyaltruistic hypothesis idea that feelings of empathy for a person can lead to behaviour that is motivated solely by wanting to help that persono Ex adults altruism towards a child in needEmpathyhelping relationship can be seen as a version of egotistic motivationo Real reason you help is to escape your own stresso Ex if someone dropped a bag of groceries you feel distressed for them so you help themEmpathyaltruism hypothesis predicts that the highempathy conditions should arouse altruistic motivation whereas the lowempathy conditions should arouse egoistic motivations Read page 467 Combination of factors that reflects altruistic motivations to help people Combination of high empathy and a suffering victim causes observers to feel sadness even when escape is easy o People do not like to feel sad and will help someone who is in distress to make themselves feel betteran egoistic motivation for helping Two results that give egoistic helping under conditions of high empathy and easy escape
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