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Chapter 13

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Psychology 2070A/B

Chapter 13 Liking, Loving, and Close Relationships Dyadic relationships relationships that develop between two people o First dyadic relationship is formed between an infant and primary caregiver Attraction Birds of a feather flock together: similarity rather than difference breeds liking and attraction for another Interpersonal attraction the study of attraction or liking between two or more people Propinquity A relationship can only develop between two people after they meet Propinquity nearness or proximity in physical space, which creates the opportunity to meet another person o Physical proximity plays an important role The Likelihood of Meeting Spatial ecology the physical layout of the buildings and the distance separating different buildings, rooms, and other spaces Functional distance compared to physical distance, the closeness between two places in terms of the opportunities for interaction o Ex. apartments can be physically far apart but functionally close together o Can be more important in determining mutual friends that physical proximity Meeting Does Not Guarantee Liking Living in close proximity to another does not guarantee you will become best friends Why: o Do things that bother you play stereo too loud Can spoil the environment Propinquity can easily produce dislike just as much as it can start a good friendship Festinger: liked neighbours were the ones who lived close Ebbeson: disliked neighbours were also the ones who lived within closer proximity Similarity Exchanging information to see if you are similar or dissimilar is a principle way in which people decide whether or not they like each other Compatible Attitudes Attitude-similarity effect the idea that people find others more attractive and likeable the more similar they are in their attitudes, beliefs, and preferences o More similarities more attractive People are more likely to marry someone who first or last name is similar to their own Similarity can lead to liking the reverse liking leads to perceived similarity o Positive even happening in a friendship produces more liking which leads to a greater perceived similarity We are repulsed by dissimilar others Absence of information about a person we can assume that we are similar in our attitudes and values Repulsion hypothesis the idea that people find others less attractive and less likeable if they differ substantially in their attitudes, beliefs, and preferences Self-Disclosure Self-disclosure the process of people revealing to one another increasingly personal and intimate details about themselves Those who are willing to disclose intimate details about themselves are generally better liked than those who are less inclined to self-disclosure Reveal things to people we like, like people because of self-disclosure Higher discloser fully discuss with others everything Low discloser reluctant to discuss things with others Opener a person who is good at getting others to disclose intimate details about themselves o Opener Scale measure individual differences in peoples ability to get other people to open up and engage in intimate self-disclosure Facial Beauty First thing you notice when you meet another person face to face is his or her face Looks matter when you meet someone o Respond more favourably and show more interest in attractive than unattractive people Babies show more positive responses to attractive than unattractive strangers Facial attractiveness shows that beauty is not in the eye of the beholder, that people do judge books by their covers and that beauty is sometimes more than skin deep Shared Perceptions of Beauty Standards of beauty are culture-specific o Children learn what is not attractive People of all ages and cultural backgrounds seem to share a common view of what is, and what is not, considered an attractive face o Show agreements on attractiveness The Components of Facial Features Measure specific features of the face Facialmetrics is one approach to studying facial beauty o Involve the measurement of a larger number of facial features Women rate male faces as more attractive when those faces feature prominent cheekbones, a large chin, and a wide smile Men rate women faces as more attractive when those faces have large eyes, a small nose and chin, prominent cheekbones, high eyebrows, large pupils, and a large smile Can use facial features to infer personality traits o Small eyes attribute more masculinity, less nurturance, and less empathy Average Faces Are Attractive Faces Facialmetrics approach says only some facial features are related to attractiveness and others are not Two things: o Evolutionary pressures and natural selection generally favour average rather than extreme population features o Starting in early infancy, people routinely form prototypes or cognitive schemas that capture the central or average features of the many instances and exemplars of a particular category If two things are combined together faces will be judged as more attractive the closer they are to the average of the population of faces Average faces are more appealing than individual instances o Average faces represent the best example or prototype of what a face looks like Familiarity makes people think their attractive Bodily Features Body Types Waist-to-hip ratio consistent relationship to rated attractiveness o The ration of waist circumference to hip circumference o Women waist is either narrower than the hips or about the same size (less than 1.0 or about 1.0) o Men waist and hips are same in circumference (about 1.0) Women with lower waist-to-hip ratios are more attractive Men with higher waist-to-hip ratios are more attractive Men with waist-to-hip ratios closer to 1.0 behave more dominantly and were rated as more leader-like in all-male groups o Why: higher waist-to-hip ratios are associated with higher levels of testosterone Men prefer women whose waist is narrower than their hips, but women prefer men whose waist and hips are nearly the same in circumference Weight Thinness is considered more attractive Plumpness can be a culture ideal North America: thin is ideal and there is a pervasive shame of being overweight Difference in preferences of body weight differs across cultures because.. o Attitudes about weight are communicated through a cultures customs and media If culture thinks thin = beauty, culture will prefer thin bodies o If culture values plumpness members of culture will learn to prefer heavier bodies Height Rule for heterosexual dating is that males should be taller o Preference for males of medium height o Tall males were judged as less attractive
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