Textbook Notes (363,019)
Canada (158,147)
Psychology (4,731)
o (43)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 – Helpful Social Behaviour Helping Behaviour

13 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 2070A/B

Chapter 12 Helpful Social Behaviour Helping Behaviour Helping behaviour that is intended to assist another person o Ex. hold a door open for a stranger, give directions with asked, getting a car out of the snow, offering words of advice Prosocial behaviour any action that provides a benefit to others o Has helping but can include actions that are not intended to help others o Ex. following rules in a game, being honest Types of Helping Helping can be divided into four different categories: o Casual helping involve strangers o Emotional helping involve family and friends o Emergency helping involve strangers o Substantial personal helping involve family and friends Helping behaviours can vary in three major ways: o Degree to which helping is planned or formal vs. spontaneous or informal Ex. taking delinquents to the zoo vs. giving someone directions o Seriousness of the problem o Distinction between giving what you have and doing what you can Ex. giving what you have: donating money to a charity Ex. doing what you can: pick up a package for a friend Relation of dimensions to different types of helping o Casual helping: unplanned and not serious, can involve giving what you have and doing what you can o Emergency helping unplanned and serious, always involves doing what you can o Substantial personal helping planned and serious, can involve give what you have and doing what you can o Emotional helping planned and either serious or not serious, involves doing what you can Altruism vs. Egoism Why individuals help others Help Others and Help Yourself Consequence of helping others is that it makes you feel good too Helping is associated with rewards and other positive outcomes Not helping associated with punishments and other negative outcomes Egotistic motivation - a motive for helping others to obtain rewards and avoid punishments o Pro-social actions are drive by our self-centered desire to obtain rewards and avoid punishments End goal of helping is to gain some benefit for the self Helping Others for Others Sake Sometimes the intent of the helper is to benefit another without the regard for personal rewards or punishments Altruistic motivation - a motive for helping purely for the sake of providing a benefit to another person o Concerned more about the welfare of another person than about himself o No desire to gain social approval or self-satisfaction Hard to define the reason for peoples helping The Evolution of Altruism? Inclusive fitness the principle that some social behaviours have been selected during the course of evolution because they increase the survival of our genes o Ex. father who rescues his daughter is improving the odds that some of his own genes will survive o Explain why people are willing to sacrifice their own personal resources in favour of genetic relatives Provide more social support to close relatives than distant relatives Humans have evolved to behave in ways that uphold systems of cooperation among members of a band or larger group o Helping occurs because systems of cooperation benefit everybody in a group Empathy might be the motivational mechanism for altruistic behaviour Empathy the ability to comprehend how another person is experiencing a situation o Empathy for someone in need increase the likelihood that an individual will be helpful to that person Feel empathy towards others who are similar to us and familiar because we it makes it easier to imagine the feeling and makes it easier to put ourselves in their shoes o More empathy to ingroup members and kin Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis Helping triggered by empathy is altruistic Empathy-altruistic hypothesis - idea that feelings of empathy for a person can lead to behaviour that is motivated solely by wanting to help that person o Ex. adults altruism towards a child in need Empathy-helping relationship can be seen as a version of egotistic motivation o Real reason you help is to escape your own stress o Ex. if someone dropped a bag of groceries, you feel distressed for them so you help them Empathy-altruism hypothesis predicts that the high-empathy conditions should arouse altruistic motivation, whereas the low-empathy conditions should arouse egoistic motivations Read page 467 Combination of factors that reflects altruistic motivations to help people Combination of high empathy and a suffering victim causes observers to feel sadness, even when escape is easy o People do not like to feel sad and will help someone who is in distress to make themselves feel better an egoistic motivation for helping Two results that give egoistic helping under conditions of high empathy and easy escape o Amount of helping was directly related to the extent of the observers reported sadness (more sadness = more likely help is to be offered) o Observers are led to believe that helping would not relieve their sadness, no longer helped An Unresolved Debate One side believes: help is always the result of egoistic motivations Other side believes: empathy elicits pure altruism in some circumstances Not worrying about the underlying motivation behind helping but focusing on situational and personal variables that predict helping Factors Influencing Helping 6 factors that influence helping behaviour Social Norms One explanation for helping behaviour is prescribed by social norms (culturally defined rules or guidelines about what behaviours are proper and improper) Norm of social responsibility the rule or guideline that we should help those who need help, if possible People generally accept the norm that they should be helpful when it is simple to do so Help is given to those who appear to have a need Awareness of the norm motivates people to make a contribution Norm of reciprocity principle that we should give back in return any favours that are done for us Help those who have helped us in the past, can increase our chances of receiving help A one-for-one trade of the same commodity works better Ex. giving your own name, give you a better chance of getting the persons name Personal norms guidelines that have been internalized to become expectations for oneself in particular situations Ex. if you have internalized the norm of social responsibility and see it as appropriate or fitting in a particular situation then you are likely to help Modelling Helpful Behaviour Observing the actions of a helpful model increases individuals helpfulness Effect of models can be seen in the influence of parents on their childrens helpfulness o Children whose parents modelling helping were more helpful than children whose parents did not model helping Models lead observers to act similarly Blaming the Victim People are more receptive to the requests of victims who did not themselves into trouble in the first place If victims brought about their own problems then observers tend to blame them and are less likely to offer help
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2070A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.