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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Final exam 2070.docx

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Psychology 2070A/B
James M Olson

Chapter 11 Final exam 2070 12/16/2012 2:38:00 PM Aggression & Violence Aggression – any form of behavior that is INTENDED to injure someone physically or psychologically  is referred specifically to observable behavior  Harm or potential harm is involved in all cases of aggression- but not all harm-doing should be labeled aggression (dentist whose intent is to help, but whose behavior can cause pain) When aggression is intended to cause extreme injury or death we call it violence  Violence is always a form of aggression, but not all aggression is violence because it is not always aimed at causing extreme injury Hostile Aggression- aggression that results from anger, frustration, or hatred  Impulsive  Primary goal to hurt the target Instrumental Aggression- harm-doing that is motivated by goals other than hurting the target, such as obtaining something of value  Premeditated Columbine shooting was a combination of both Relational Aggression –behavior that is intended to damage another persons peer relationships  Happens even at preschool age, especially among girls  Boys tend to exhibit physical aggression  Include rumors and social exclusion  Among older youths (gr 7-9) found that both overt and relational aggression were positively related to POPULARITY (it was “cool”) Corporal Punishment- the use of physical force with the intention of causing a child to experience pain but not injury for the purpose of correction or control of the child’s behavior  Spanking  Effective way of achieving immediate compliance but does not produce long term compliance  Has negative effects on children: greater aggression, higher degrees of delinquent & antisocial behaviors, lower mental health, etc.  NON-physical methods are recommended; timeouts, suspension of privileges, grounding General Aggression Model (GAM) –broad theory that conceptualizes aggression as the result of a chain of psychological processes, including situational events, aggressive thoughts and feelings, and interpretation of the situation  people respond through; aggressive thoughts, feelings, and physiological arousal  aggressive feelings, thoughts and arousal within the person increase the probability of aggressive behavior but first the individual must interpret the situation as one in which aggression is appropriate Biological influences on Aggression  Emotions of anger often precede aggression  Prisoners who were convicted of violent crimes were found to have higher levels of testosterone  Men commit 70-90% of murders around the world  Testosterone in mid peaks in their mid 20’s and then declines, as it corresponds to age-related changes in violent crime Evolutionary Processes-human tendency toward aggression is innate and has evolved because it served a survival function in our evolutionary past (Fight or Flight)  Male sexual jealousy as a common precipitator of aggression  High rates of homicide among men in their 20’s (who are in their prime reproductive years) involve some type of sexual jealousy  Aggressive impulse can be consciously suppressed Frustration & Aggression  “aggression is always a consequence of frustration”  frustration occurs whenever an individuals efforts to obtain a desired goal are interfered with or otherwise blocked frustration-aggression hypothesis-  frustration always leads to some form of aggression, and;  frustration is the ONLY cause of aggression Jigsaw puzzle experiment  Participants in the two frustration conditions delivered many more shocks than did participants in the controlled condition (showed equal level of aggression however)  Participants in the insult condition showed the highest levels of aggression  Proved a problem with the frustration-aggression hypothesis, other factors other than frustration caused aggression- ANGER  Therefore the frustration-aggression hypothesis is now called the revised frustration-aggression hypothesis Displaced aggression- harm-doing that is directed at someone or something that was not the actual source of frustration  People may not direct their aggression toward the actual source  Often occurs in response to a minor triggering frustration  Triggered displaced aggression- more intense reaction than would be expected from the relatively minor trigger Catharsis- idea that aggressive behavior releases peoples pent-up frustration and reduces the likelihood of subsequent aggression  Analogy of hydraulics  NOT RELIABLE, in fact, opposite effects have been found, sometimes a norm is established Excitation Transfer- idea that physiological arousal from sources other than frustration or anger can be linked to anger-related thoughts and cognitions, increasing aggression  Assumption that aversive arousal leads to aggression  Blood pressure, heart rate, all increase when people are frustrated or angered  Aggression can be reduced through aversive arousal; listening to soothing music, distracting oneself with pleasant things  NOT ONLY through frustration but from exercise, sporting events, and exposure to sexually themed material Experiment  When participants both were angered and spent the intervening time on the exercise bike- levels of aggression were high  Excitation transfer can increase aggressive behavior even when people are no longer consciously aware of a state of arousal Social Learning Theory- humans learn many kind of responses including aggressive ones, by observing other people  Watching shows us how to perform a behavior and teaches us whether it will be rewarded or punished Bobo Doll Experiment  Control group engaged in very few aggressive actions with the bobo doll HOWEVER were just as likely to engage in aggression with other toys, such as gun play Norms of hockey treat fighting as acceptable, so players use it to release frustration and to intimidate other players  In other sports its punished, whereas in hockey its rewarded, therefore its not done in other sports Cognitive Neoassosciation Model- idea that aggression results from a process of spreading activation (a schema activated in memory tends to bring to mind other schemas)  Initially an unpleasant event arouses negative affect which then activates two distinct schemas; Fight or Flight o These schemas are then further associated with anger (fight) or fear (flight) Cues in a situation are more likely to activate schemas, if they’re related to fear, the flight response is more probable, if they’re related to anger, then aggression is more likely  Unfortunately, aggression-related cues are very common; guns, knives, aggressive lyrics, violent movies, hostile symbols  Experiment done with shocks where the extent of retaliation was significantly greater when weapons were present rather when they were absent (more shocks were given) – this is known as the “weapons effect”, suggests to people how they are supposed to respond Categories of; Aggressive thoughts  Social Learning Theory and the Cognitive Neoassosciation Model Physiological arousal  Excitation transfer perspective assumes that arousal from any source can heighten aggressive responding Aggressive feelings  Frustration-aggression Hypothesis – hostility results from frustrating circumstances Appraisal processes- most closely related to cognitive neoassosciation model which states that when anger schemas are activated, the response tendency to FIGHT will guide behavior  It says that arousal from any sources can be mis-interpreted as anger Three individual influences on Aggression Narcissism- excessive love for the self  Tend to be defensive about criticism that threatens their high ego  When criticized, more likely to respond with hostility or aggression- this response is labeled THREATENED EGOTISM Trait Aggressiveness – how likely people are to respond to situations with aggression  Some people are more likely to respond to any situation with aggression more than others  Developed Aggression Questionnaire (AQ)- measures physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, & hostility through pairing of words that are either aggressive or ambiguous o People who score high on the AQ are hypothesized to be more aggressive o Scores from AQ correlated with ratings of participants aggressiveness obtained from acquaintances  Students who scored higher on the AQ rated ambiguous words as more similar to aggression  Students did not differ on ambiguous-ambiguous word pairs Execute Functioning – represents attempts to organize and coordinate several simpler tasks simultaneously  Controlled by the frontal lobes of the brain  Poor performance on measures of executive functioning is associated with more aggression in response to situations  Poor executive functioning have difficulty processing multiple pieces of information at the same time; thus failing to notice cues in the setting that typically inhibit aggression (cues that aggression will be punished) Experiment done when the alleged partners behavior was provocative, participants with poor executive functioning were more aggressive than participants with good executive functioning Alcohol  More than half of the people who committed a violent crime had been drinking alcohol before the event  Alcohol DOES indeed increase aggression  Both men and women become more aggressive when intoxicated but the effect is stronger for MEN o Majority of men involved in an incident of aggression reported drinking alcohol prior to the event, WOMEN DID NOT Alcohol is a depressant, inhibitors against aggression are reduced  Alcohol has indirect effects on aggression by causing changes in thought, perception and interpretation  Reduces cognitive capacity and narrows attention, less environmental cues can be monitored  Usually people get drunk in loud, crowded, or competitive places where the aggressive behavior is prevalent Alcohol ALSO reduces individuals physiological stress-response to threat, so drunk people do not experience their typical level of fear about being punished for aggressive behavior Heat  Aggressive behavior is more likely to occur when it is hot  Deadly assault is more frequent in hot years than in relatively cooler years  People become increasingly aggressive as the temperature of the room goes up- but only to a certain point, once heat becomes excessive, aggression actually goes down (maybe energy goes down or people just want to escape) Why??  Heat causes uncomfortability and anger, increasing aversive arousal that contributes to aggressive behavior Culture & Aggression  Of all the countries around the world, the US has the highest rate of homicides because of the ease of which firearms can be obtained in the U.S o Greater in southern part than northern o Could be because there is deeper poverty o Could be southern history of slavery and racial conflict o Culture of honor- a culture in which white non-Hispanic men, are taught from an early age to defend their honor and their reputation for strength, and toughness  Homicide rates within the south are substantially higher in HERDING regions (hills and dry plains) than in farming regions Cortisol is associated with stress and arousal Southern participants showed elevated testoste
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