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Chapter 4

Psychology 2070A/B Chapter 4: Social Psych Ch 4

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Psychology 2070A/B
Graeme Haynes

Chapter 4 - Social Perception o Study of how we form impressions of other people and make inferences about them. Nonverbal behaviour - Facial expressions, body movements, tone of voice - Nonverbal communication o How people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally without words o Facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position, movement o Can read nonverbal cues to other species other than humans o Other species can read human nonverbal cues o People automatically mimic other people’s facial expressions ▪ Happiness, sadness, disgust ▪ Mimicry differs depending on gender o Mirror Neurons: neurons respond when we perform action and when we see someone else perform the same action ▪ When we see someone crying the neurons fire automatically just as if we were crying ourselves ▪ This is how people connect with each other emotionally - Facial expressions of emotion o Encode ▪ To express nonverbal behaviour (smiling, pat on back) o Decode ▪ To interpret the meaning of the nonverbal behaviour other people express o Darwin believed nonverbal forms of communication were species specific not culture specific ▪ Disgust face has evolutionary significance ▪ Faster to detect anger from male face and Happy from female face o Walter Friesen and Paul Ekman says that facial expressions are emotion universal (part of human and not from culture) ▪ Anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, sadness o East Asians pay more attention to context than do Westerners o Affect blends (makes decoding inaccurate) ▪ Facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion wile the other part of the face registers another emotion ▪ Often, people express more than one emotion at the same time o Sometimes people try to appear less emotional than they are so no one will know how they really feel making decoding inaccurate o Decoding facial expressions can be difficult and has to do with culture (makes decoding inaccurate) - Culture and Nonverbal Communication o Display Rules ▪ Culturally determined rules about which emotional expressions are appropriate to show • Men supposed to show anger, contempt disgust while women are supposed to show fear and powerless emotions • In Japan, people hide wide smiles and hide their negative facial expressions • In India, judge fear and anger more unpleasantly than Canadians do • The more individualistic a culture, the more likely it is that the expression of emotion is encouraged rather than collectivist cultures ▪ Some cultures have more or less personal space than others o Emblems ▪ Nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture ▪ Okay sign is different in cultures Implicit Personality Theories - Implicit Personality Theory o Type of schema that people use to group various kinds of personality traits together ▪ If someone is kind, they are generous as well ▪ If person did not dress provocative, would not have to use condom cause they probably don’t have AIDS o Strongly tied to culture ▪ People who are beautiful have other wonderful qualities ▪ For Chinese culture, collectivists were less likely to assume that an attractive person possessed desirable personality traits ▪ In Western, there is an artistic personality while no such thing exists for Chinese ▪ For Chinese there are some personalities that don’t exist in Western • Shi gu (worldly, devoted to family, social skills) ▪ Benjamin Whorf • The language people speak influences the way they think about the world Causal Attribution - Nonverbal behaviour and implicit personality theories are not fail-safe indicators of what a person is really thinking or feeling - Attribution theory (Fritz Heider) o Study of how we infer the causes of our own and other people’s behaviour ▪ How people explain the causes of their own and other people’s behaviour - Internal Attribution o Inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about them, such as their attitude, character, or personal
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