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Chapter 3

Psychology 2070A/B Chapter 3: Social Psych Ch 3

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Psychology 2070A/B
Graeme Haynes

Chapter 3 Auto Pilot - Automatic Thinking o Nonconscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless thinking - Schemas o Mental structures that organize our knowledge about the social world o Influence the information we notice, think about, and remember o Influences the way we processes information o Content of our schemas are influenced by our culture ▪ Some bantu guy able to distinguish between cows because that country is known for its cows in its culture o Useful for organizing and making sense of the world and to fill gaps in knowledge - Stereotype o When schema is applied to a social group as gender or race o People more likely to shoot black people regardless if they were holding a gun or not ▪ Not only for black people - Korsakov’s syndrome o Neurological disorder where people have difficulty forming schemas - Accessibility o The extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people’s minds and therefore are likely to be used when we are making judgments about the social world ▪ Some schemas are accessible because of past experience (chronically accessible) • If you know an alcoholic in the past you would classify a bum as one ▪ Accessible because they are related to your current goal • Studying for a abnormal psych class and need to know mental disorders you may classify the bum as one ▪ Temporarily accessible because of recent experiences • Schema not always accessible but happens to be at top because you were thinking about it before encountering the event • Priming • Giving positive words before mentioning a person will give the person a more positive view than negative o Need words that are both accessible and applicable - Self-fulfilling prophecy o People have an expectation about what another person is like, which influences how they act towards that person o Causes that person to behave consistently with their original expectations ▪ B is a jerk, A acts rude towards B, B responds by acting rude to A, B will remain a jerk to A ▪ Kids who are said to be smarter were treated better by teachers o Reign of Error ▪ People can cite the actual course of events as proof that they were right from the beginning ▪ Teacher says in all his years teaching, boys did better than girls in math - Judgmental Heuristics o Mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently o Do not guarantee people will make accurate judgments but most of the time they are good - Availability Heuristic o A mental shortcut where people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind ▪ If someone is being stupid you can recount all the times he’s being stupid o Problem: Sometimes what is easiest to bring to mind is not typical of the overall picture and can lead to bad conclusions o People would use availability heuristic on themselves too ▪ Asked to think of times you were assertive 6 times then 12 times ▪ People said they were assertive if they can easily recall times they have been assertive - Representativeness Heuristic o A Mental shortcut where people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case ▪ Person is fashionably dressed, orders croissant, you would assume they are from Quebec - Base Rate Information o Information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population ▪ Percent of students at Alberta universities who are from Alberta are high so you may guess the person is from Alberta o Pay more attention to representative than base rate - Cocktail party phenomenon o When you are talking to someone and you hear someone mention your name across the room o Unconsciously monitoring the other conversations to see if anything is important - Unconscious thinking may be involved when we have competing goals o Will act on whatever was more recently primed - Unconscious thinking may be better than conscious and imm
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