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Social psychology 2070 Ch 6- 9

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2070A/B
Professor
.
Semester
Winter

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Chapter 6: Attitudes and Social Behaviour 2/18/2013 1:02:00 PM Attitude: an individual’s evaluation of a target  Target can be an object, an issue, a person, a group, behaviour, or any identifiable aspect of the environment.  Targets can be evaluated to assess whether a particular target is positive or negative. Emotional Reactions How the object makes you feel Attitudes Cognitive Information Your belief about the object Past Behaviour Your previous actions towards the object the object - Attitudes can be dominated by the personal feelings of that object OR peoples beliefs of that object Ambivalent attitudes: attitudes contain conflicting elements (both positive and negative)  i.e, chocolate cake tastes good but has a lot of calories.  This kind of behaviour can lead to variable behaviour over time Explicit attitudes: those that people can report consciously. Implicit attitudes: An individual’s automatic evaluative response to a target, which can occur without awareness. Implicit attitudes reflect minimal processing (low-level evaluations) and explicit attitudes reflect more extensive processing (higher-level evaluations). Object-appraisal function: Humans benefit from quick assessments of the positive or negative implications of the objects that they encounter in the environment. Value- expressive function: They allow people to convey an identity that connects them to some groups and makes them distinct from other groups.  To show their commitment to a particular religion or group.  i.e, teenagers may embrace a particular musical style (heavy metal) because they want to associate themselves with a peer group and dissociate themselves from their parents. Shavitt 1 Study:  Purpose: o Which attitudes of coffee or perfume fulfill either an object- appraisal function or a value-expressive function.  Hypothesis: o Attitudes towards coffee fulfill an object-appraisal function  People either like or dislike the taste of coffee. o Attitudes towards perfume fulfill a value-expressive function.  People purchase a particular brand of perfume because it projects a desired image, or to fit in with a group of people.  Results agreed with hypothesis. nd 2 Study:  Coffee advertisements: attitudes towards coffee give people a quick evaluation  focus on positive features of the coffee and the rewards it will bring  Perfume advertisements reflect people’s identity and desired images should focus on the desirable impression the perfume will make on others. Self report measures:  Likert- Type Scales o Rensis Likert o Respondents read statements (each expresses either a clear pro or con about a topic). o Scores (1-5), response to a statement that offers the most consistency with their general attitude towards a topic scores a 5.  Semantic Differential Scales o Respondents rate an object based on several scales that represent different attitudes and themes. o i.e, Canadian health care system id written at the top with scales labeled as “good-bad”, “favourable-unfavourable”, “fair-unfair” below it. o The respondent is instructed to put an X somewhere on the 5- point scale.  Opinion Surveys o Designed to assess public opinion about an issue, event, or group. o Usually contain just one or two items on a particular issue and are often limited to “Yes” or “No”. o Useful for gathering public opinion but social psychologists rarely use it. - two assumptions underlying self report measures:  People know what their attitudes are. o But people don’t have direct access to their implicit attitudes.  People will report their attitudes honestly o Socially desirable responding - cannot clearly measure the ambivalence of an individual’s attitude Non verbal measures of attitudes: - better assessment of peoples unconscious, affective responses to objects than self-report measures. Key Features adv/disadv’s Behavioural Observe Adv: Unobtrustive Measures respondent’s actions (respondent towards attitude unaware) object. Disadv: Favourable actions - Not possible for all (i.e, approach object, attitude objects smile at object) are - Assumes that there assumed to reflect is a link between favourable attitudes. attitude and behaviour. Physiological Assess respondent’s - May reflect intensity Measures physiological but not direction of reactions to object. attitude (i.e, like or i.e, heart rate or dislike someone) blood pressure. - May not be very sensitive. Implicit Measures Respondent’s Adv: Shows to reaction times are predict spontaneous, used to infer nonverbal reactions automatic responses. to attitude object. i.e, Implicit Disadv: Time Association Test. consuming. Implicit attitudes are assumed to influence the speed with which the attitude object can be paired with good or bad things. Affective sources of attitudes Evaluative conditioning: when an object has no casual role in the outcome but evokes negative or positive feelings simply by its association with the affect-arousing event.  i.e, special feelings for the dong that was playing when you met your romantic partner. - Famous example is the Pavlov’s dogs, we are conditioned like the dogs - experiment by John Cacioppo: participants read a series of 6 lettered words and 6 lettered nonwords. Mikd electric shocks were given to participants with every real word and none for every nonword. Participants were asked to rate how pleasant each word and nonword was and nonwords were rated more pleasant. Mere Exposure effect: Exposure to an object generally leads to a more favourable attitude toward it.  Happens because there is no uncertainty and uncertainty is unpleasant. Cognitive Sources of Attitudes - Kerry Kawakami showed that priming a schema caused attitude ratings to move in the direction of the schema.  Priming the schema increased the accessibility of cognititve information that was consistent with the schema, which then influenced attitudes. Behavioural sources of attitudes - Think back to our experiences in the past - This process is unlikely to occur when we have strong and well developed attitudes. 3 sources of attitudes:  Affective  Cognitive  Behavioural Alcohol Myopia: the effect of alcohol on information processing  Intoxication reduces cognitive capacity, which results in narrowing of attention, as a results, only the most obvious and strongest cues will be perceived which will increase the impact of these cues compared to times when the individual is sober.  i.e, if the strongest, external cues are consistant with aggressive behaviour (someone insults/shoves) than aggression is more likely to occur intoxicated than sober.  Study by Tara MacDonald: tested whether alcohol intoxiaction influenced university students’ willingness to have unprotected sex. o Male students were tested in either a sober or intoxicated condition. o In each condition, they both watched a scenario in which sex without a condom was possible and after completed a questionnaire that assessed their willingness to have unprotected sex if they were in mikes position. o Intoxicated participants were more likely to act in a risky fashion when the most obvious cues supported such behaviour. - Attitude Heritability: If we inherit specific biological characteristics (strength, coordination, intelligence etc.), it would be more likely that they would develop a favourable attitude towards the activity where those certain strengths come in to play.  The final attitudes reflect a combination of biology (inherited characteristics) and experience (success at activity)  Test by James Olson: surveyed identical and fraternal twins to estimate the extent to which differences between the respondents can be attributed to genetic factors (identical twins showed more similar attitudes than fraternal) o Conclusion: Almost all of the attitudes showed at least some genetic component.  Proposed that attitudes with a higher biological component might be more important to people than attitudes with little biological component.  High heritability ( attitude towards death penalty and attitudes towards use of birth control). Low heritability (attitude towards capitalism or attitude towards social support for immigrants.) *** in conclusion, people care more about highly heritable attitudes than attitudes low in heritability. - Socialization: The process by which infants are molded into acceptable members of their society.  First few year, family is the most important source of socialization.  Parents express opinions and values that children may internalize  Test on parenting styles: parents were classified in terms of restictivness and coldness. o Results showed that nonrestrictive parents was associated with greater emphasis on imaginativeness and independence, whereas restrictive parenting was associated with greater emphasis on politeness and obedience. o Results also showed that cold parenting was associated with greater emphasis on safety issues such as family and national security and warm parenting was associated with greater emphasis on freedom and personal responsibility.  There is not a strong correlation with parents and children regarding racial attitudes. - Reference group: a group that serves as a standard of comparison for an individual, whether in terms of attitudes, values, or behaviour.  Individuals try to conform to the norms and values of their main reference groups.  Reference groups can be: group of friends, people who prefer a certain musical style, a club, or any other identifiable group. - Jeer pressure: Refer to the conformity pressure that is produced by seeing someone ridiculed by another person  People dp npt have tp be the direct target of ridicule to feel jeer pressure; even observers of the ridicule will conform to norms so that they will not be ridiculed too.  Self-ridiculers not expected to create jeer pressure because making fun of oneself is not threatening to others. - How do current attitudes affect future behaviour?  Rational choice: Making deliberate, reasoned decisions based on our attitudes.  Selective perception: the biasing effect of our attitudes on how we interpret and understand the world. - Rational Choice: Beliefs about the target that can guide behaviour in a rational manner. For example, You believe that skating is fun and good for your health so you skate regularly. 1. Theory of reasoned action: This theory views humans as rational decision makers who behave on the basis of logical beliefs. Attitude toward the behaviour Behavioural Behaviour intention Subjective norm concerning the behaviour - Behavioural intention: refers to the individuals plan to perform or not perform the action - attitude: beliefs that behaviour will have certain consequences (positive or negative) - subjective norms: are individuals’ feelings of social pressure to perform or not perform an action. - Bahavioural intentions depend on attitudes and subjective norms - If attitudes and subjective norms are consistent with one another, then behavioural intentions will be strong and actions will be consistent. - If attitudes and subjective norms conflict, then behavioural intenetions may be uncertain and actions may be inconsistent. For example, a man who wants to smoke but knows that his family wants him to stop, he will feel very conflicted. - Some evidence that subjective norms are more influential in collectivist cultures than individualist. 2. IMB model of AIDS-preventive behaviour - Stands for Information, Motivation, and Behavioural skills, which is based primarily on the theory of reasoned action. - 3 major elements:  Information: basic knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases  Motivation: encompasses the concepts of attitudes and subjective norms from the theory of reasoned action.  Behavioural skills: refer to the ability to perform safer sex behaviours effectively (be able to use condoms correctly, etc.) - Selective Perception  Biasing effect: people see what they expect to see and what they want to see. o i.e, Claudia Cohen’s experiment in which people watched a videotape of a women and tended to recall information consistent with her alleged occupation (server or librarian). o Also, negative or positive attitudes towards a person effects what we will notice about that person. o Biasing effect of attitudes can occur for both explicit and implicit attitudes  Hostile media phenomenon: Both sides viewing the media as biased against their own side. - rational choice is direct and occurs at a conscious level. - Selective perception is more subtle and may not be aware of it. - Aspects of Attitude Strength  Extremity: Extreme attitudes are very unfavourable or very favourable.  Importance: Important attitudes are the ones that the individual cares about.  Accessibility: Accessible attitudes are ones that can be activated quickly and easily.  Direct experience: Attitudes based on direct experience come from personal contact with the attitude object. - Attitudes are assumed to guide behaviour when the individual has the freedom to behave in whatever way he or she chooses. - If a person is not allowed to choose how to behave, then his /her attitudes are irrelevant. - Situations in which people lack or believe that they lack control can lead to attitude-inconsistent behaviour: 1. External threat: Sometimes there are strong external threats or pressures that force us to behave in a certain way. i.e, avoiding to drink at a party because you were afraid of the punishment you’d receive if your parents found out. 2. Lack of alternatives: Lack of alternative chocices can take away our behavioural freedom. i.e, hangining out with someone you didn’t really like because they were the only person available. 3. Biological needs or addictions: forces us to do things we don’t want to. i.e, Smokers might desperately want to quit smoking but not even try because they believe they are so addicted that stopping is impossible. 4. Lack of time: i.e, If individuals believe that they don’t have time to excersise, they may not even try to do so, irrespective of their favourable attitudes. - Attitudes do not predict behaviour  LaPiere test o Took a chinease couple on a tour of the united states visitng more than 250 hotels and even though anti-chinease sentiment was quite common they all served the couple. o Then when asked if they would serve Chinese people, most of them said they wouldn’t even though they did. - Compatibility principle: Refers to the fact that measures of attitudes and measures of behaviour must be matched in terms of generality (both measures should be general or both measures should be specific). - Culture: The set of attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviours shared by a group of people.  Hofstede introduced power distance.  Refers to the extent to which a culture accepts unequal power distribution among individuals and institutions.  Cultures that are high in power distance support unequal power distribution.  Cultures that are low in power distance prefer equal distributions of influence.  East Asian and East European countries tend to e high in power distance, whereas Canada, US and West European countries tend to be low in power distance. Chapter 7- Attitude Change 2/18/2013 1:02:00 PM - Cognitions: A belief or piece of knowledge (i.e, “My name is..”, “it snowed last night”, etc.)  People have thousands of cognitions stored in their memory but we will be aware of only a small number at any one time. - consonant cognitions: are consistent with one another; they imply that the other is valid or good.  i.e, “I brush my teeth twice a day” and “Toothbrushing prevents cavities”. - Dissonant cognitions: Are inconsistent with one another; they imply that the other is wrong or bad.  i.e, “I smoke” and “smoking causes cancer” Cognitive dissonance theory: Awareness of consonant cognitions makes us feel good, whereas awareness of dissonant cognitions makes us feel bad. - Dissonance can be defined as the state of feeling bad or conflicted about ones own irrational behaviour. (i.e, “I did badly on this test” and “I expected to do well on the test”.) - Festinger described dissonance as a state of “aversive arousal” and said that we are motivated to reduce it.  Dissonance reduction must involve rationalization: convincing ourselves that our current or past behaviour made sense after all  i.e, changing cognition to “I smoke” and “Smoking makes me loose weight”. - So reduce dissonance in two ways 1. changing one of the dissoanant cognitions or adding consonant cognitions. 2. Reducing the importance of a dissonant cognition or increasing the importance of a consonant cognition. - Dissonance: 3 major domains:  Induced compliance: investigates dissonance that results from counterattitudinal behaviour. o Participants are induced to comply with the experiementer’s request that they bahave in a way that is known to be inconsistent with their attitudes increases dissonance o Dissonance could be reduced by changing the cognition, i.e, “The tasks were boring” by deciding that maybe the tasks weren’t so bad after all.  Effort Justification: People who have suspect that they have wasted effort will be motivated to change one of the dissonant cognitions or to add consonant cognitions. o Effort justification paradigm: leading participants to suspect that effort they had investd maay have been worthless. Participants would then reduce dissonance by convincing themselves that it was actually worthwhile. o i.e, If people go through a painful and embarrassing initiation into a fraternity, they will be motivated to justify their suffering by perceiving the group as attractive and worthwhile. o The more brutal it is, the more consonance they will add.  Free Choice: After making a decision, people almost always experience some dissonance (postdecisional dissonance) o Why will people feel dissonance after making a decision? Because the chosen option will usually have some negative features and the rejected option will usually have some positive features. o Free choice paradigm: Involves asking participants to make a choice between two or more alternatives and participants evlautions of the alternatives are assessed before making the decision and again after the decision. - Self-Perception Theory: People logically infer their attitudes from their behaviour and the circumstances in which the behaviour occurred, without the occurrence of any arousal.  i.e, individuals might infer that their attitude towards golfing is unfavourable because they have rarely golfed despite having had opportunities to do so. Dissonance theory vs Self perception:  Dissonance theorists say that adversive arousal motivated the attitude change, whereas self-perception theorists say that there was no arousal at all. - Impression management theory: faking attitude change. Participamts in dissonance studies did not want to appear inconsistent to the experimenter and therefore lied about their attitudes. - Self Affirmation theory: Argues that counterattitudinal behaviour is upsetting bc it threatens their self worth and their views of themselves as honest and intelligent.  Theorists preciected that, as opposed to dissonance theory, people can deal with threats to their self-worth in ways other than changing their attitudes. o i.e, if dishonestly was caused by a counterattitudinal behaviour, then they should make themselves feel better by doing something honest or good to make up for it. - Hypocrisy Paradigm: - Test dissonance theory that arouses dissonance by having people publicly promote a socially desirable behaviour and then be made aware that they have not always exhibited the behaviour themselves in the past.  The hypocrisy would then motivate individuals to change their behaviour to be more consistent with what they publicly promoted. - Preference for consistency (PFC): People are sensitive to dissonance more than others so they made a scale that measured the extent to which people desired predictability and consistency within their own responses and within others’ responses.  People that scored high wanted their actions and attitudes to be consistent with other people, (agrees with dissonance theory).  Experiemnent by Ciadini: Students had to write an essay in favour of tuition increase. 2 conditions. High dissonance condition were asked whether they would be willing to write this essay, and low dissonance condition didn’t have a choice. After written the essay, they reported their own attitudes on the subject. o Participants who were high in preference for consistency reported more favourable attitudes toward a tuition increase in the choice condition than in no-choice. o Participants who were low in the preference for consistency reported equivalent attitudes in the two conditions. o This using induced compliance paradigm, dissonance theory was supported only for high PFC people. - Dissonance- implicit vs explicit  Disonance may not affect implicit attitudes. Dissonance arousal and reduction rely on conscious mental inferences.  Dissonance changes explicit attitudes but not implicit. - 2 types of Persuasion: 1. cognitive response theory: information based persuasion, and the effectiveness of a message in causing attitude change is determined by the thoughts evoked by the message. o The cognitive responses (thoughts) are assumed to vause the acceptance or rejection of the advocated position. - Strength of attitudes:  experiment by john Cacioppo and Richard Petty: illustrated the importance of strength of arguments in a message. o Participants listened to a message, two messages used, one a strong one anf the other a weaker one. o Another independent variable was increasing the number of times they heard the message (one or three times) o When participants head the message once, strong arguments produced more positive attiudes than the weak once. o When participants heard the message more than once, the strong message produced even more positive attitudes an the weak message produced even more negative attitudes. 2. Heuristic persuasion: Focuses on attitude change that results from the use of heuristics (simple rules, shortcuts, or assumptions).  People do not always exert a lot of effort to judge the validity of a persuasive message, but may instead base their agreement or disagreement on superficial cues (“experts are reliable sources of information”, etc).  Experiement by Richard Petty- Student had to listen to a counteratttiudinal message. The message contained either 8 strong points or 8 weak points. They were also given either a high- credibility condition or a low-credibility condition. o They also made the experiement low-relevance to the participants bc they wouldn’t be affected by the change. o Since it wouldn’t affect them, they would end up using the heuritic cue of source credibility to judge the message, rather then the strength of the arguments. o The strength of the arguments had less effect on attitudes o THUS what mattered was whether the source was credible or not. o When we introduced high personal relevance condition, the expertise made almost no difference but strength of the arguments impacted the most. o THUS high-personal-relevance conditions elicited systematic processing - two models of persuasive messages:  Systematic heuristic model- designed to explain the effectiveness of persuasive messages o Two types of processing  Systematic processing: People think very hard about the message that they are receiving and involves a thoughtful analysis of relevant information.  Heuristic processing: People rely on heuristics (cues) to make judgement, without thinking carefully about the arguments presented.  Elaboration likelihood model: designed to explain the effectiveness of persuasive messages o Two routes to persuasion  Central route to persuasion: occurs when attitude change results from careful analysis of the info  Peripheral route to persuasion: occurs when attitude change results from noncognitive factors; it parallels heuristic processing but also uses evaluative conditioning and mere exposure. o Motivation: Systematic processing (central route) will occur only when the individual is (1) motivated to exert the necessary effort and (2) has the ability to process the message carefully, (pay attention or understand the arguments).  Factors that enable systematic processing o Personal relevance: whether people will be motivated to process o Message complexity: If message is too complex, they are unable to process the message so they the creditability of the source was the only thing they took into consideration. If the message is easy to understand, the strength of the arguments is mainly took into consideration and tehe credibility of the source would not effect persuasion. - Culture differences in dissonance arousal:  people form collectivist cultures would experience less dissonance arousal following a standard dissonance manipulation than people from individualist cultures. o Experiement with cd’s: chosen CD going up in attractivness and rejected CD going down in attractiveness for individualist cultures.  Collectivist participants did not show significant changes in their evaluations of either CD.  In conclusion, dissonance theory does not appear in collectivist cultures.  People in individualist cultureswould show more attitude change (spreading of alternatives, to reduce dissonance) after their decision.  Individualist cultures showed more attitude change after making a choice for themselves than after making a choice for a close friend.  Collectivist cultures showed more attitude change after making a choice for a close friend than for themselves. - Cultural differences in responses to persuasive messages:  Will people in indiviaualist vs collectivist cultures respond favourable to different kinds of imformation?  People from indivudalist cultures would respond most favourably to messages describing positive personal consequences of the recommendations because such appeals are consistent with the “independent self”  Experiement: researchers created tow version of ads for 4 products and all the ads contained a headline and illustrations. o One version presented an “individualistic headline” and a picture of the individual using the product o The second version presented a “collectivist headline” and a picture of a group of people o Result: Americans responded to the individualistic versions and vice versa. o Therefore cultural differences can occur in reponses to persuasive messages. - Protection motivation theory: Explains how threateneing messages can influence attitudes and behaviour.  People will change attitudes and behaviour only when they are motivated to protect themselves.  The beliefs that will arouse threat and increase the probability of someone changing behaviour to reduce threat: 1. The problem is severe 2. They are susceptible to the problem 3. The recommended behaviours will be effective in avoiding the prboblem 4. They are capable of performing the recommended behaviours. - Propaganda: A persuasive attempt (or campaign of many persuasive attempts) that is motivated by a specific ideology or set of values and that is deliberately biased in its presentation of issues.  Source of propaganda has a value-based agenda (i.e, a relgious view or a political position) and is willing to distort the facts to convince others to adopt the same view.  Usually appeals to emotions rather than reason, as listeners are not able to weigh the arguments for each side in a rational manner. - Cults: extreme form of persuasion (force can be used) - Everyday propaganda:  in advertisements o ads are openly one sided, and rarely present a weakness of a product.  TV and movies o Stories that may portray historical events ina one-sided and emotional way  Education  Religious institutions 2/18/2013 1:02:00 PM - Conformity: Any change in behaviour caused by another person or group; the individual acted in some way because of influence from others. ** it is only limited to changes in behaviour caused by other people; it does not refer to effects of other people on internal concepts like attitudes and beliefs. - Compliance: refers to change in behaviour that is requested by another person or group; the indivudal acted in some way because others asked them to. It is possible to refuse.  Voting in an election for someone - obedience: refers to a change in behaviour that is ordered by another person/group ( a command that is not presented with options).  Child getting told by parents to clean room - Why do we conform?  Informational influence: People are influenced by others because of a desire to be correct and to obtain valid information. o Rely on other people as a source of information and that their judgment is correct  Normative influence: People are influenced by others to gain rewards or avoid punishment o Maybe don’t think that the others judgment is correct but just wants to avoid conflict or be liked. - Social norm: rule or guideline about what behaviours are proper/improper  formal norms- laws, contracts, etc. o in Canada, drive on right side of road  informal norms- customs/ traditions within small groups o expected business attire for men includes a suit and tie - The Autokinetic effect – by Sherif  in a darkened room, a stationary point of lights will appear to move periodically  occurs bc no other visual frame of reference is available and also because of occasional rapid movements of ur eye.  Sherif study: o First study- Asked men to report how far the light appeared to move and the estimates of movement ranged widely o Second study- assembled people in groups(2 or 3) and the task was the same.  Wanted to test group norms o When participants began making judgments in groups, the judgments of perceived motion began to converge. o When they were tested indivually again, their answers were more like the group. o Therefore: group norms are spontaneously established and carry over into individual judgments - Asch’s study of lines  Most people follow the group. - NOTE: people that do not conform are LESS authoritarian and less conscientious. - general tendency for conformity to decrease as age increases - Effects of group size: conformity rose rapidly as group grew from one to five, but additional increases in size had no impact on conformity  but in general, very large groups (20 – 100) do conform to the group. Cultural differences  Collectivist cultures conform more than individualist.  Individualist cultures have independent self-concepts, and collectivist are interdependent.  Nevertheless, people vary in their self-concepts even within their own culture. Gender differences  Women conform slightly more than men.  When responses are private, women do not conform more than men  When responses are public, a gender difference often appears  Greater conformity in public suggests that women may be somewhat more susceptible to normative influence than men. Compliance examples: ask someone to lend their lecture notes, lend some money, sign a petition, etc.  The requesters typically imply that we can refuse , though they would appreciate our compliance. - 6 compliance techniques: 1. Foot-in-the-door technique - If you can get someone to agree to a small request, then he or she is more likely to also agree to a much larger, related request. - Study by Freeman and Fraser: People are more willing to put the large sign on their car after signing a petition than not. - Why does this happen?  Self perception processes: When people agree to initial, small request, they may engage in self perception process where they label themselves as “helpful”. Therefore when the second request is made they will likely agree to it because they already labeled themselves as “helpful people” .  Consistency processes: People want their attitudes and behaviours to be consistent and are distressed by inconsistencies.  Refusing a request after accepting the one before would be inconsistent.  People who score high on PFC are more susceptible to technique than people who scored low (because they exhibit stronger dissonance effects). 2. Door-in-the-face technique: - Begins by making a very large request, one that is SURE to be turned down. Once denied, the request is then followed by a smaller request. These individuals who have turned down one request, will be more likely to agree to a second request. - How does this happen? o Norm of reciprocity: we should reciprocate (give back in return) 3. Free- Gift technique: - Giving a gift in hopes tat they will return the favor. 4. Low-ball technique: Offering something at a lower price and raising the price after individual agrees to the purchase. o Why does it work>  People want to act consistently with their initial decision, or fear that they would act inconsistent. 5. Scarcity Technique: A strategy to increase attractivness of a product by making it appear rare or temporary. o Scarase commodity increases its value. 6. Liking Technique: likely to be influenced by people who are physically attractive, people whom we know, similar to us, and trustworthy. o Why does this work?  We want to please people whom we like  Heuristics contribution- “I help people I like”. Obedience: Refers to conformity that results from another person’s command  Norm of obedience to authority: refers to people’s knowledge that legitimate authorities would be obeyed. o I.e, officers, doctors, etc.  Milgrim’s Obedience studies: o Experiement at Yale university o Participant was greeted by experiementer and “disguised” confederate. o Participant would always be the teacher and the confederate was the learner o Teacher would electric shock the learner for every answer they got wrong, starting from 15volts to 450v o Learner gave wrong answers about 70% of time o When 300v is administered, the teacher would hear pounding on wall o After 315v shock, learner no longer responded. o First milgram study: 65% went all the way o The first point at which any teacher refused to go on was at switch 20 (300v; the last of the “Intense Shock” switches). o SECOND study of study: could hear learner protest at much earlier stage and protests got louder at 150v o THIRD study: learner was in same room as teacher  40% were fully obedient o Another study: there were TWO authorities.  At switch 10, one experiementer was in disagreement with the other  Less people went all the way  The teachers choice to obey was the experiementer who commanded them to stop. - informational vs normative influence:  Accuracy motivation: The desire to make accurate judgmenets and decisions. o People achieve these goals by observing or copying others o Be more similar to others’ beliefs o Like in Sherifs study, they look to others for guidance. o Source of INFORMATIONAL  Social motivation: The desire to establish and maintain social relationships. o People try to be agreeable to make others like them o Source of NORMATIVE - Terror management Theory:  Developed by Jeff Greenberg  Suggests that humans face a unique problem among animal species: we know that we are mortal, that one day we are going to die. o The awareness of our mortality is hypothesized to be deeply threatening o People do not show visible terror about this subject because it is a result of protective strategies. o How do humans control the terror? People take comfort in cultural belief systems (i.e, literal immortality in some cultures like heaven, reincarnation, etc) o Prejudice and aggression against members of outgroups may protect individuals from fear of death by confirming their own group’s values and ideology. o Also hypothesizes that conformity to social values and cultural world views can serve to protect people form death anxiety. o Jeff Greenberg study: Participants were asked to think about their death and then rate two articles, one pro American and one anti.  Conclusion: when their own mortality was relevant, participants wanted to reaffirm the values of American society, because this cultural worldview gave th
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