Chapter 6: Attitudes and Social Behaviour 2/18/2013 1:02:00 PM
Attitude: an individual’s evaluation of a target
Target can be an object, an issue, a person, a group, behaviour, or
any identifiable aspect of the environment.
Targets can be evaluated to assess whether a particular target is
positive or negative.
How the object makes you feel
Attitudes Cognitive Information
Your belief about the object
Your previous actions towards
- Attitudes can be dominated by the personal feelings of that object OR
peoples beliefs of that object
Ambivalent attitudes: attitudes contain conflicting elements (both positive
i.e, chocolate cake tastes good but has a lot of calories.
This kind of behaviour can lead to variable behaviour over time
Explicit attitudes: those that people can report consciously.
Implicit attitudes: An individual’s automatic evaluative response to a
target, which can occur without awareness.
Implicit attitudes reflect minimal processing (low-level evaluations)
and explicit attitudes reflect more extensive processing (higher-level
evaluations). Object-appraisal function: Humans benefit from quick assessments of the
positive or negative implications of the objects that they encounter in the
Value- expressive function: They allow people to convey an identity that
connects them to some groups and makes them distinct from other groups.
To show their commitment to a particular religion or group.
i.e, teenagers may embrace a particular musical style (heavy
metal) because they want to associate themselves with a peer
group and dissociate themselves from their parents.
o Which attitudes of coffee or perfume fulfill either an object-
appraisal function or a value-expressive function.
o Attitudes towards coffee fulfill an object-appraisal function
People either like or dislike the taste of coffee.
o Attitudes towards perfume fulfill a value-expressive function.
People purchase a particular brand of perfume because
it projects a desired image, or to fit in with a group of
Results agreed with hypothesis.
Coffee advertisements: attitudes towards coffee give people a quick
evaluation focus on positive features of the coffee and the
rewards it will bring
Perfume advertisements reflect people’s identity and desired
images should focus on the desirable impression the perfume will
make on others.
Self report measures:
Likert- Type Scales
o Rensis Likert
o Respondents read statements (each expresses either a clear
pro or con about a topic). o Scores (1-5), response to a statement that offers the most
consistency with their general attitude towards a topic scores
Semantic Differential Scales
o Respondents rate an object based on several scales that
represent different attitudes and themes.
o i.e, Canadian health care system id written at the top with
scales labeled as “good-bad”, “favourable-unfavourable”,
“fair-unfair” below it.
o The respondent is instructed to put an X somewhere on the 5-
o Designed to assess public opinion about an issue, event, or
o Usually contain just one or two items on a particular issue
and are often limited to “Yes” or “No”.
o Useful for gathering public opinion but social psychologists
rarely use it.
- two assumptions underlying self report measures:
People know what their attitudes are.
o But people don’t have direct access to their implicit attitudes.
People will report their attitudes honestly
o Socially desirable responding
- cannot clearly measure the ambivalence of an individual’s attitude
Non verbal measures of attitudes:
- better assessment of peoples unconscious, affective responses to objects
than self-report measures.
Key Features adv/disadv’s Behavioural Observe Adv: Unobtrustive
Measures respondent’s actions (respondent
towards attitude unaware)
Favourable actions - Not possible for all
(i.e, approach object, attitude objects
smile at object) are - Assumes that there
assumed to reflect is a link between
favourable attitudes. attitude and
Physiological Assess respondent’s - May reflect intensity
Measures physiological but not direction of
reactions to object. attitude (i.e, like or
i.e, heart rate or dislike someone)
blood pressure. - May not be very
Implicit Measures Respondent’s Adv: Shows to
reaction times are predict spontaneous,
used to infer nonverbal reactions
automatic responses. to attitude object.
i.e, Implicit Disadv: Time
Association Test. consuming.
Implicit attitudes are
assumed to influence
the speed with which
the attitude object
can be paired with
good or bad things.
Affective sources of attitudes
Evaluative conditioning: when an object has no casual role in the outcome
but evokes negative or positive feelings simply by its association with the
i.e, special feelings for the dong that was playing when you met
your romantic partner.
- Famous example is the Pavlov’s dogs, we are conditioned like the dogs
- experiment by John Cacioppo: participants read a series of 6 lettered
words and 6 lettered nonwords. Mikd electric shocks were given to participants with every real word and none for every nonword. Participants
were asked to rate how pleasant each word and nonword was and nonwords
were rated more pleasant.
Mere Exposure effect: Exposure to an object generally leads to a more
favourable attitude toward it.
Happens because there is no uncertainty and uncertainty is
Cognitive Sources of Attitudes
- Kerry Kawakami showed that priming a schema caused attitude ratings to
move in the direction of the schema.
Priming the schema increased the accessibility of cognititve
information that was consistent with the schema, which then
Behavioural sources of attitudes
- Think back to our experiences in the past
- This process is unlikely to occur when we have strong and well developed
3 sources of attitudes:
Alcohol Myopia: the effect of alcohol on information processing
Intoxication reduces cognitive capacity, which results in narrowing
of attention, as a results, only the most obvious and strongest cues
will be perceived which will increase the impact of these cues
compared to times when the individual is sober.
i.e, if the strongest, external cues are consistant with aggressive
behaviour (someone insults/shoves) than aggression is more likely
to occur intoxicated than sober.
Study by Tara MacDonald: tested whether alcohol intoxiaction
influenced university students’ willingness to have unprotected sex.
o Male students were tested in either a sober or intoxicated
o In each condition, they both watched a scenario in which sex
without a condom was possible and after completed a questionnaire that assessed their willingness to have
unprotected sex if they were in mikes position.
o Intoxicated participants were more likely to act in a risky
fashion when the most obvious cues supported such
- Attitude Heritability: If we inherit specific biological characteristics
(strength, coordination, intelligence etc.), it would be more likely that they
would develop a favourable attitude towards the activity where those certain
strengths come in to play.
The final attitudes reflect a combination of biology (inherited
characteristics) and experience (success at activity)
Test by James Olson: surveyed identical and fraternal twins to
estimate the extent to which differences between the respondents
can be attributed to genetic factors (identical twins showed more
similar attitudes than fraternal)
o Conclusion: Almost all of the attitudes showed at least some
Proposed that attitudes with a higher biological component might
be more important to people than attitudes with little biological
High heritability ( attitude towards death penalty and attitudes
towards use of birth control). Low heritability (attitude towards
capitalism or attitude towards social support for immigrants.)
*** in conclusion, people care more about highly heritable attitudes than
attitudes low in heritability.
- Socialization: The process by which infants are molded into acceptable
members of their society.
First few year, family is the most important source of socialization.
Parents express opinions and values that children may internalize
Test on parenting styles: parents were classified in terms of
restictivness and coldness.
o Results showed that nonrestrictive parents was associated
with greater emphasis on imaginativeness and independence,
whereas restrictive parenting was associated with greater
emphasis on politeness and obedience.
o Results also showed that cold parenting was associated with
greater emphasis on safety issues such as family and national security and warm parenting was associated with greater
emphasis on freedom and personal responsibility.
There is not a strong correlation with parents and children
regarding racial attitudes.
- Reference group: a group that serves as a standard of comparison for an
individual, whether in terms of attitudes, values, or behaviour.
Individuals try to conform to the norms and values of their main
Reference groups can be: group of friends, people who prefer a
certain musical style, a club, or any other identifiable group.
- Jeer pressure: Refer to the conformity pressure that is produced by
seeing someone ridiculed by another person
People dp npt have tp be the direct target of ridicule to feel jeer
pressure; even observers of the ridicule will conform to norms so
that they will not be ridiculed too.
Self-ridiculers not expected to create jeer pressure because making
fun of oneself is not threatening to others.
- How do current attitudes affect future behaviour?
Rational choice: Making deliberate, reasoned decisions based on
Selective perception: the biasing effect of our attitudes on how
we interpret and understand the world.
- Rational Choice: Beliefs about the target that can guide behaviour in a
rational manner. For example, You believe that skating is fun and good for
your health so you skate regularly.
1. Theory of reasoned action: This theory views humans as
rational decision makers who behave on the basis of logical
intention Subjective norm
- Behavioural intention: refers to the individuals plan to perform or not
perform the action
- attitude: beliefs that behaviour will have certain consequences (positive or
- subjective norms: are individuals’ feelings of social pressure to perform
or not perform an action.
- Bahavioural intentions depend on attitudes and subjective norms
- If attitudes and subjective norms are consistent with one another, then
behavioural intentions will be strong and actions will be consistent.
- If attitudes and subjective norms conflict, then behavioural intenetions
may be uncertain and actions may be inconsistent. For example, a man who
wants to smoke but knows that his family wants him to stop, he will feel
- Some evidence that subjective norms are more influential in collectivist
cultures than individualist.
2. IMB model of AIDS-preventive behaviour
- Stands for Information, Motivation, and Behavioural skills, which is based
primarily on the theory of reasoned action.
- 3 major elements:
Information: basic knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases
Motivation: encompasses the concepts of attitudes and subjective
norms from the theory of reasoned action.
Behavioural skills: refer to the ability to perform safer sex
behaviours effectively (be able to use condoms correctly, etc.)
- Selective Perception
Biasing effect: people see what they expect to see and what they
want to see.
o i.e, Claudia Cohen’s experiment in which people watched a
videotape of a women and tended to recall information
consistent with her alleged occupation (server or librarian). o Also, negative or positive attitudes towards a person effects
what we will notice about that person.
o Biasing effect of attitudes can occur for both explicit and
Hostile media phenomenon: Both sides viewing the media as
biased against their own side.
- rational choice is direct and occurs at a conscious level.
- Selective perception is more subtle and may not be aware of it.
- Aspects of Attitude Strength
Extremity: Extreme attitudes are very unfavourable or very
Importance: Important attitudes are the ones that the individual
Accessibility: Accessible attitudes are ones that can be activated
quickly and easily.
Direct experience: Attitudes based on direct experience come
from personal contact with the attitude object.
- Attitudes are assumed to guide behaviour when the individual has the
freedom to behave in whatever way he or she chooses.
- If a person is not allowed to choose how to behave, then his /her attitudes
- Situations in which people lack or believe that they lack control can
lead to attitude-inconsistent behaviour:
1. External threat: Sometimes there are strong external threats
or pressures that force us to behave in a certain way.
i.e, avoiding to drink at a party because you were afraid of the
punishment you’d receive if your parents found out.
2. Lack of alternatives: Lack of alternative chocices can take
away our behavioural freedom.
i.e, hangining out with someone you didn’t really like because they
were the only person available.
3. Biological needs or addictions: forces us to do things we
don’t want to. i.e, Smokers might desperately want to quit smoking but not even
try because they believe they are so addicted that stopping is
4. Lack of time: i.e, If individuals believe that they don’t have time
to excersise, they may not even try to do so, irrespective of their
- Attitudes do not predict behaviour
o Took a chinease couple on a tour of the united states visitng
more than 250 hotels and even though anti-chinease
sentiment was quite common they all served the couple.
o Then when asked if they would serve Chinese people, most of
them said they wouldn’t even though they did.
- Compatibility principle: Refers to the fact that measures of attitudes and
measures of behaviour must be matched in terms of generality (both
measures should be general or both measures should be specific).
- Culture: The set of attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviours shared by
a group of people.
Hofstede introduced power distance.
Refers to the extent to which a culture accepts unequal power
distribution among individuals and institutions.
Cultures that are high in power distance support unequal power
Cultures that are low in power distance prefer equal distributions of
East Asian and East European countries tend to e high in power
distance, whereas Canada, US and West European countries tend to
be low in power distance. Chapter 7- Attitude Change 2/18/2013 1:02:00 PM
- Cognitions: A belief or piece of knowledge (i.e, “My name is..”, “it snowed
last night”, etc.)
People have thousands of cognitions stored in their memory but we
will be aware of only a small number at any one time.
- consonant cognitions: are consistent with one another; they imply that
the other is valid or good.
i.e, “I brush my teeth twice a day” and “Toothbrushing prevents
- Dissonant cognitions: Are inconsistent with one another; they imply that
the other is wrong or bad.
i.e, “I smoke” and “smoking causes cancer”
Cognitive dissonance theory: Awareness of consonant cognitions makes
us feel good, whereas awareness of dissonant cognitions makes us feel bad.
- Dissonance can be defined as the state of feeling bad or conflicted about
ones own irrational behaviour. (i.e, “I did badly on this test” and “I expected
to do well on the test”.)
- Festinger described dissonance as a state of “aversive arousal” and said
that we are motivated to reduce it.
Dissonance reduction must involve rationalization: convincing
ourselves that our current or past behaviour made sense after all
i.e, changing cognition to “I smoke” and “Smoking makes me loose
- So reduce dissonance in two ways
1. changing one of the dissoanant cognitions or adding consonant
2. Reducing the importance of a dissonant cognition or increasing
the importance of a consonant cognition.
- Dissonance: 3 major domains:
Induced compliance: investigates dissonance that results from
o Participants are induced to comply with the experiementer’s
request that they bahave in a way that is known to be
inconsistent with their attitudes increases dissonance o Dissonance could be reduced by changing the cognition, i.e,
“The tasks were boring” by deciding that maybe the tasks
weren’t so bad after all.
Effort Justification: People who have suspect that they have
wasted effort will be motivated to change one of the dissonant
cognitions or to add consonant cognitions.
o Effort justification paradigm: leading participants to suspect
that effort they had investd maay have been worthless.
Participants would then reduce dissonance by convincing
themselves that it was actually worthwhile.
o i.e, If people go through a painful and embarrassing initiation
into a fraternity, they will be motivated to justify their
suffering by perceiving the group as attractive and
o The more brutal it is, the more consonance they will add.
Free Choice: After making a decision, people almost always
experience some dissonance (postdecisional dissonance)
o Why will people feel dissonance after making a decision?
Because the chosen option will usually have some negative
features and the rejected option will usually have some
o Free choice paradigm: Involves asking participants to make a
choice between two or more alternatives and participants
evlautions of the alternatives are assessed before making the
decision and again after the decision.
- Self-Perception Theory: People logically infer their attitudes from their
behaviour and the circumstances in which the behaviour occurred, without
the occurrence of any arousal.
i.e, individuals might infer that their attitude towards golfing is
unfavourable because they have rarely golfed despite having had
opportunities to do so.
Dissonance theory vs Self perception:
Dissonance theorists say that adversive arousal motivated the
attitude change, whereas self-perception theorists say that there
was no arousal at all. - Impression management theory: faking attitude change. Participamts
in dissonance studies did not want to appear inconsistent to the
experimenter and therefore lied about their attitudes.
- Self Affirmation theory: Argues that counterattitudinal behaviour is
upsetting bc it threatens their self worth and their views of themselves as
honest and intelligent.
Theorists preciected that, as opposed to dissonance theory, people
can deal with threats to their self-worth in ways other than
changing their attitudes.
o i.e, if dishonestly was caused by a counterattitudinal
behaviour, then they should make themselves feel better by
doing something honest or good to make up for it.
- Hypocrisy Paradigm: - Test dissonance theory that arouses dissonance
by having people publicly promote a socially desirable behaviour and then be
made aware that they have not always exhibited the behaviour themselves
in the past.
The hypocrisy would then motivate individuals to change their
behaviour to be more consistent with what they publicly promoted.
- Preference for consistency (PFC): People are sensitive to dissonance
more than others so they made a scale that measured the extent to which
people desired predictability and consistency within their own responses and
within others’ responses.
People that scored high wanted their actions and attitudes to be
consistent with other people, (agrees with dissonance theory).
Experiemnent by Ciadini: Students had to write an essay in favour
of tuition increase. 2 conditions. High dissonance condition were
asked whether they would be willing to write this essay, and low
dissonance condition didn’t have a choice. After written the essay,
they reported their own attitudes on the subject.
o Participants who were high in preference for consistency
reported more favourable attitudes toward a tuition increase
in the choice condition than in no-choice.
o Participants who were low in the preference for consistency
reported equivalent attitudes in the two conditions.
o This using induced compliance paradigm, dissonance theory
was supported only for high PFC people. - Dissonance- implicit vs explicit
Disonance may not affect implicit attitudes. Dissonance arousal and
reduction rely on conscious mental inferences.
Dissonance changes explicit attitudes but not implicit.
- 2 types of Persuasion:
1. cognitive response theory: information based persuasion, and
the effectiveness of a message in causing attitude change is
determined by the thoughts evoked by the message.
o The cognitive responses (thoughts) are assumed to vause the
acceptance or rejection of the advocated position.
- Strength of attitudes:
experiment by john Cacioppo and Richard Petty: illustrated the
importance of strength of arguments in a message.
o Participants listened to a message, two messages used, one a
strong one anf the other a weaker one.
o Another independent variable was increasing the number of
times they heard the message (one or three times)
o When participants head the message once, strong arguments
produced more positive attiudes than the weak once.
o When participants heard the message more than once, the
strong message produced even more positive attitudes an the
weak message produced even more negative attitudes.
2. Heuristic persuasion: Focuses on attitude change that results
from the use of heuristics (simple rules, shortcuts, or assumptions).
People do not always exert a lot of effort to judge the validity of a
persuasive message, but may instead base their agreement or
disagreement on superficial cues (“experts are reliable sources of
Experiement by Richard Petty- Student had to listen to a
counteratttiudinal message. The message contained either 8 strong
points or 8 weak points. They were also given either a high-
credibility condition or a low-credibility condition.
o They also made the experiement low-relevance to the
participants bc they wouldn’t be affected by the change. o Since it wouldn’t affect them, they would end up using the
heuritic cue of source credibility to judge the message, rather
then the strength of the arguments.
o The strength of the arguments had less effect on attitudes
o THUS what mattered was whether the source was credible or
o When we introduced high personal relevance condition, the
expertise made almost no difference but strength of the
arguments impacted the most.
o THUS high-personal-relevance conditions elicited systematic
- two models of persuasive messages:
Systematic heuristic model- designed to explain the
effectiveness of persuasive messages
o Two types of processing
Systematic processing: People think very hard about
the message that they are receiving and involves a
thoughtful analysis of relevant information.
Heuristic processing: People rely on heuristics (cues)
to make judgement, without thinking carefully about
the arguments presented.
Elaboration likelihood model: designed to explain the
effectiveness of persuasive messages
o Two routes to persuasion
Central route to persuasion: occurs when attitude
change results from careful analysis of the info
Peripheral route to persuasion: occurs when attitude
change results from noncognitive factors; it parallels
heuristic processing but also uses evaluative
conditioning and mere exposure.
o Motivation: Systematic processing (central route) will occur
only when the individual is (1) motivated to exert the
necessary effort and (2) has the ability to process the
message carefully, (pay attention or understand the
Factors that enable systematic processing o Personal relevance: whether people will be motivated to
o Message complexity: If message is too complex, they are
unable to process the message so they the creditability of the
source was the only thing they took into consideration. If the
message is easy to understand, the strength of the
arguments is mainly took into consideration and tehe
credibility of the source would not effect persuasion.
- Culture differences in dissonance arousal:
people form collectivist cultures would experience less dissonance
arousal following a standard dissonance manipulation than people
from individualist cultures.
o Experiement with cd’s: chosen CD going up in attractivness
and rejected CD going down in attractiveness for individualist
Collectivist participants did not show significant changes
in their evaluations of either CD.
In conclusion, dissonance theory does not appear in
People in individualist cultureswould show more attitude change
(spreading of alternatives, to reduce dissonance) after their
Individualist cultures showed more attitude change after making a
choice for themselves than after making a choice for a close friend.
Collectivist cultures showed more attitude change after making a
choice for a close friend than for themselves.
- Cultural differences in responses to persuasive messages:
Will people in indiviaualist vs collectivist cultures respond
favourable to different kinds of imformation?
People from indivudalist cultures would respond most favourably to
messages describing positive personal consequences of the
recommendations because such appeals are consistent with the
Experiement: researchers created tow version of ads for 4 products
and all the ads contained a headline and illustrations. o One version presented an “individualistic headline” and a
picture of the individual using the product
o The second version presented a “collectivist headline” and a
picture of a group of people
o Result: Americans responded to the individualistic versions
and vice versa.
o Therefore cultural differences can occur in reponses to
- Protection motivation theory: Explains how threateneing messages can
influence attitudes and behaviour.
People will change attitudes and behaviour only when they are
motivated to protect themselves.
The beliefs that will arouse threat and increase the probability of
someone changing behaviour to reduce threat:
1. The problem is severe
2. They are susceptible to the problem
3. The recommended behaviours will be effective in
avoiding the prboblem
4. They are capable of performing the recommended
- Propaganda: A persuasive attempt (or campaign of many persuasive
attempts) that is motivated by a specific ideology or set of values and that is
deliberately biased in its presentation of issues.
Source of propaganda has a value-based agenda (i.e, a relgious
view or a political position) and is willing to distort the facts to
convince others to adopt the same view.
Usually appeals to emotions rather than reason, as listeners are not
able to weigh the arguments for each side in a rational manner.
- Cults: extreme form of persuasion (force can be used)
- Everyday propaganda:
o ads are openly one sided, and rarely present a weakness of a
TV and movies
o Stories that may portray historical events ina one-sided and
emotional way Education
Religious institutions 2/18/2013 1:02:00 PM
- Conformity: Any change in behaviour caused by another person or
group; the individual acted in some way because of influence from others.
** it is only limited to changes in behaviour caused by other people; it does
not refer to effects of other people on internal concepts like attitudes and
- Compliance: refers to change in behaviour that is requested by another
person or group; the indivudal acted in some way because others asked
them to. It is possible to refuse.
Voting in an election for someone
- obedience: refers to a change in behaviour that is ordered by another
person/group ( a command that is not presented with options).
Child getting told by parents to clean room
- Why do we conform?
Informational influence: People are influenced by others because
of a desire to be correct and to obtain valid information.
o Rely on other people as a source of information and that their
judgment is correct
Normative influence: People are influenced by others to gain
rewards or avoid punishment
o Maybe don’t think that the others judgment is correct but just
wants to avoid conflict or be liked.
- Social norm: rule or guideline about what behaviours are proper/improper
formal norms- laws, contracts, etc.
o in Canada, drive on right side of road
informal norms- customs/ traditions within small groups
o expected business attire for men includes a suit and tie
- The Autokinetic effect – by Sherif
in a darkened room, a stationary point of lights will appear to move
occurs bc no other visual frame of reference is available and also
because of occasional rapid movements of ur eye.
o First study- Asked men to report how far the light appeared
to move and the estimates of movement ranged widely o Second study- assembled people in groups(2 or 3) and the
task was the same.
Wanted to test group norms
o When participants began making judgments in groups, the
judgments of perceived motion began to converge.
o When they were tested indivually again, their answers were
more like the group.
o Therefore: group norms are spontaneously established and
carry over into individual judgments
- Asch’s study of lines
Most people follow the group.
- NOTE: people that do not conform are LESS authoritarian and less
- general tendency for conformity to decrease as age increases
- Effects of group size: conformity rose rapidly as group grew from one to
five, but additional increases in size had no impact on conformity
but in general, very large groups (20 – 100) do conform to the
Collectivist cultures conform more than individualist.
Individualist cultures have independent self-concepts, and
collectivist are interdependent.
Nevertheless, people vary in their self-concepts even within their
Women conform slightly more than men.
When responses are private, women do not conform more than
When responses are public, a gender difference often appears
Greater conformity in public suggests that women may be
somewhat more susceptible to normative influence than men. Compliance examples: ask someone to lend their lecture notes, lend some
money, sign a petition, etc.
The requesters typically imply that we can refuse , though they
would appreciate our compliance.
- 6 compliance techniques:
1. Foot-in-the-door technique
- If you can get someone to agree to a small request, then he or she is
more likely to also agree to a much larger, related request.
- Study by Freeman and Fraser: People are more willing to put the large
sign on their car after signing a petition than not.
- Why does this happen?
Self perception processes: When people agree to initial,
small request, they may engage in self perception process
where they label themselves as “helpful”. Therefore when
the second request is made they will likely agree to it
because they already labeled themselves as “helpful
Consistency processes: People want their attitudes and
behaviours to be consistent and are distressed by
Refusing a request after accepting the one before
would be inconsistent.
People who score high on PFC are more susceptible
to technique than people who scored low (because
they exhibit stronger dissonance effects).
2. Door-in-the-face technique:
- Begins by making a very large request, one that is SURE to be
turned down. Once denied, the request is then followed by a
smaller request. These individuals who have turned down one
request, will be more likely to agree to a second request.
- How does this happen?
o Norm of reciprocity: we should reciprocate (give back in
3. Free- Gift technique:
- Giving a gift in hopes tat they will return the favor. 4. Low-ball technique: Offering something at a lower price and
raising the price after individual agrees to the purchase.
o Why does it work>
People want to act consistently with their initial
decision, or fear that they would act inconsistent.
5. Scarcity Technique: A strategy to increase attractivness of a
product by making it appear rare or temporary.
o Scarase commodity increases its value.
6. Liking Technique: likely to be influenced by people who are
physically attractive, people whom we know, similar to us, and
o Why does this work?
We want to please people whom we like
Heuristics contribution- “I help people I like”.
Obedience: Refers to conformity that results from another person’s
Norm of obedience to authority: refers to people’s knowledge
that legitimate authorities would be obeyed.
o I.e, officers, doctors, etc.
Milgrim’s Obedience studies:
o Experiement at Yale university
o Participant was greeted by experiementer and “disguised”
o Participant would always be the teacher and the confederate
was the learner
o Teacher would electric shock the learner for every answer
they got wrong, starting from 15volts to 450v
o Learner gave wrong answers about 70% of time
o When 300v is administered, the teacher would hear pounding
o After 315v shock, learner no longer responded.
o First milgram study: 65% went all the way
o The first point at which any teacher refused to go on was at
switch 20 (300v; the last of the “Intense Shock” switches). o SECOND study of study: could hear learner protest at much
earlier stage and protests got louder at 150v
o THIRD study: learner was in same room as teacher
40% were fully obedient
o Another study: there were TWO authorities.
At switch 10, one experiementer was in disagreement
with the other
Less people went all the way
The teachers choice to obey was the experiementer who
commanded them to stop.
- informational vs normative influence:
Accuracy motivation: The desire to make accurate judgmenets
o People achieve these goals by observing or copying others
o Be more similar to others’ beliefs
o Like in Sherifs study, they look to others for guidance.
o Source of INFORMATIONAL
Social motivation: The desire to establish and maintain social
o People try to be agreeable to make others like them
o Source of NORMATIVE
- Terror management Theory:
Developed by Jeff Greenberg
Suggests that humans face a unique problem among animal
species: we know that we are mortal, that one day we are going to
o The awareness of our mortality is hypothesized to be deeply
o People do not show visible terror about this subject because it
is a result of protective strategies.
o How do humans control the terror? People take comfort in
cultural belief systems (i.e, literal immortality in some
cultures like heaven, reincarnation, etc)
o Prejudice and aggression against members of outgroups may
protect individuals from fear of death by confirming their own
group’s values and ideology. o Also hypothesizes that conformity to social values and cultural
world views can serve to protect people form death anxiety.
o Jeff Greenberg study: Participants were asked to think about
their death and then rate two articles, one pro American and
Conclusion: when their own mortality was relevant,
participants wanted to reaffirm the values of American
society, because this cultural worldview gave th