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Chapter 10&11

CHAPTER 10 & 11

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Western University
Psychology 2070A/B
Richard Sorrentino

FINAL EXAM – SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 2070 1 Chapter 10 - Group Dynamics & Intergroup Relations  Group dynamics – study of groups and group processes  Group – two or more people who are interacting and/or influencing one another  Social psychologists have directed attention to two sizes of groups: 1) those interested in topics such as group productivity & decision making have focused on small groups (3-7 or 20 ppl) 2)those interested in intergroup conflict & international relations focused on 20+ people – can’t test in lab and so have asked individuals how they perceive these large groups Individual Performance and Behaviour in Group Settings Social Facilitation: The Effects of an Audience  Triplett conducted a study and found that children performed winding a fishing reel better when another child was also present and concluded that people perform better in the presence of others  social facilitation  However, subsequent studies testing the effects of audience on individual’s performance found inconsistent findings  Zajonc found that those showing an improvement in performance in front of an audience utilized simple tasks where those that show a decrease in performance utilized relatively complex task  Zajonc hypothesized that the presence of other people increases the probability of the dominant responses on a task  Dominant response – action that is most likely to occur in a situation or on a task when the individual is alone – when a task is simple or something that has been done many times, the dominant response will be correct or well-practiced ones, when a task is complex or novel, dominant response is more likely to be incorrect  Zajonc predicted that these tendencies will be heightened by the presence of an audience proposed that this phenomena occurs bc the presence of other people is physiologically arousing – may be anxious about performing well in front of others  Previous research has indicated that physiological arousal restricts range of attention: people can only focus on a few cues – when task is simple, narrowed attn span improves performance bc it blocks out distractions, when its complex makes it diff for us to focus on all the cues necessary for a good performance  Blascovich did a study in which participants were presented with two digit numbers and had to press one of two response keys – through trial and error found out that they were supposed to push the key when the number was smaller than 68 and the other for when it was larger  Some were given a practice trial (made the task easy) bc they had the chance to figure out that 68 was the critical value, some were not given the practice trial making the task hard  When allowed to practice, participants did better in front of an audience than alone, but when they did it without practice they did sig worse in front of an audience than alone Social Loafing: Goofing Off When Others Can Do the Work  Latante, Williams and Harkins coined the term social loafing to capture the idea that people may slack off in groups (reduced motivation or relaxation)  Latante found that participants cheered the loudest when they thought they were alone and cheered 82% as intensely when they believed one other person was also cheering and only 74% as intensely when they believed five others were also cheering  The larger the group, the less effort individuals tend to exert on joint tasks  One necessary component is anonymity – if people believe that their own performance within the group will be identifiable, social loafing disappears  People are less likely to loaf when the group is important or meaningful to them than when the group isn’t, when there is cohesiveness (friends) or attractiveness FINAL EXAM – SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 2070 2  Can be intentional or unintentional – sometimes we know that we’re not giving max effort, or don’t realize that their effort has been affected  Men are more likely to do this than women – women are more group-oriented and more concerned about collective outcomes than men who are more individualistic in their orientation  One study found that social loafing is more common in Canada (individualistic) than in China (collectivist) Deindividuation: Immersion in a Group  Deindividuation – a psychological state in which ppl lose their sense of personal identity and feel immersed in a group – get caught up in the actions of those around them  More likely to engage in socially undesirable behaviour  Perspectives on deinviduation: Weakens people’s inhibitions against performing harmful or socially disapproved actions, heightens people’s responsiveness to external cues, increases people’s adherence to norms that emerge in a group  Study by Kelem found that children were more likely to break the rules when they were anonymous and when they were in a group rather than alone  production of deindividuation especially when they were in a group  Zimbardo’s study with the volunteers who were assigned to the roles of guards or prisoners – shows deindividuation in a prison can produce unacceptable behaviour by guards  Gergen proposed that deindividuation increases people’s responsiveness to external cues such as noticeable features of the setting and cues might sometimes be prosocial  Johnson and Dawning found that deindividuation (no nametags) led to more aggression in the KKK cloak but to less aggression in the nursing uniform condition  Postmes & Spears suggested that large groups serve to increase people’s adherence to emerging norms in that group which are sometime aggressive or self-serving – ex/ when a political rally becomes a riot  not because people are uninhibited but because a new norm of aggression against authority develops in the group  Postmes & Spears also speculated that state of deindividuation can occur on the internet due to anonymity Decision Making in Groups  Decision making is an important function fulfilled by groups Groupthink: bad Decisions because of Pressure to Agree  Generally groups are expected to make better decisions than individuals but they do not always make good choices  Can be made due to high uncertain course of action, all options involve risks or groups lack necessary expertise to make informed judgements  Bad decision can also occur when there is poor group functioning – when the group engages in biased or faulty reasoning based on the info available to them  Groupthink (Janis) – a way of thinking that can occur in decision making groups when pressure to agree leads to inadequate appraisal of options and poor decisions  when group members are highly motivated to agree with leader and one another, they don’t express reservations openly or criticize one another ,  Occurs in certain kinds of groups: a group that is highly cohesive (strength of forces acting on members to stay in group), directive leader (openly express their own opinions w/o discussion and control subsequent convos in group), high stress (more pressure to follow leader)  Stress intensifies the effects of group cohesiveness and directive leadership on the tendency for group members to keep their reservations to themselves Symptoms of Group Think:  Reflects desire to agree and maintain positive group feeling FINAL EXAM – SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 2070 3  Symptoms cause faulty assumptions, inadequate assessment of possible options, willingness to take excessive risks and poor decision 1) An illusion of invulnerability – group feels invincible, makes risky decisions 2) Rationalization of warnings – warning signals discounted, rationalized as being harmless 3) An unquestioned belief in the inherent morality of the group – belief that we are moral & ethical 4) Stereotyped view of enemy leaders – negativity leads to risky or foolish decisions 5) Pressure on group members who challenge the consensus - highly cohesive groups want agreement and harmony 6) Self-censorship of misgivings, questions & counterarguments – don’t express doubts 7) An illusion of unanimity – believe that everyone agrees with a decision 8) Emergency of self-appointed mindguards – members act as mind guards – protecting the mind of the leader by shielding him or her from criticism or doubts, self appointed Avoiding Groupthink 1) Leader should be nondirective and allow other members to express their opinions before stating his/her view 2) A norm of openness and candour should be established – devil’s advocate, question everything 3) People from outside the groups should be included in the decision making process Empirical Tests of Groupthink Predictions  Group cohesiveness – limited research on this topic, researchers have found that highly cohesive groups discourage dissent and produce more confident decisions but report less censorship  Leadership – Flowers found that groups with directive leaders used less information & produced fewer possible solutions than did groups with non directive leaders, Leana found that directive leader groups produced fewer possible solutions and agree more with the leader’s position  More information is considered b a group when there is a norm of critical thinking than when there is a norm of consensus seeking – Sorrentino has found that some people actually prefer & respond more positively to directive than nondirective leaders Group Polarization: Moving Toward the Majority View  Group polarization – the tendency for group discussion to strengthen the initial leanings of the members in one group  Whatever option is initially preferred (pre-discussion) by the majority will tend to become even more widely preferred after group discussion (post discussion)  Brauer and colleagues found that participants who first discussed their impressions with other participants reported stronger stereotypes – higher ratings of selfishness & violence than did participants who rated the group without engaging in any discussion  May contribute to intergroup hostility Causes of Group Polarization  People usually argue in favour of their own view on an issue – therefore the majority of arguments during a discussion are likely to support whatever view was predominant before the discussion began  People have a desire to appear knowledgeable and intelligent – social pressure to move in the direction of the preferred view bc members don’t want to appear ill informed or unyielding (informational and normative influence)  Jury decision was the focus in Schullers research and it was found that jurors use expert testimony to interpret info in the case – when expert presented info about the battered woman syndrome, significantly more jurors were lenient in their judgement about the defendant Social Psychology in Your Life:  Jury deliberations are likely to produce group polarization – predominantly leaning toward a guilty or innocent verdict among jurors prior to discussion predicts the final outcome bc discussions tend to favour the initially preferred decision FINAL EXAM – SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 2070 4  Tends to occur more strongly for verdicts of innocence than for verdicts of guilty – this is bc Kerr & MacCoun argue that jurors take to heart the principle of beyond reasonable doubt: they will only convict someone if they are certain that they are guilty Minority Influence Confidence & Persistence  Moscovici argued that minorities can be successful in their influence only if they are firm and resolute in their position – confident in view & will not yield to majority pressure  Members of a minority must persist in their position unwaverlingly and remain consistent among themselves but must remain resolute, try to avoid appearing rigid, extremist or impervious to information but seem reasonable and logical  One way to achieve this is by agreeing with the majority on other issues – gives them more credibility bc they show that they don’t always hold deviant views  May face conformity pressure and be rejected Unique Effects of Minority Influence  Exposure to a minority group stimulates divergent thinking – novel creative thoughts that consider alternative approaches to a problem  Nemeth found that exposure to a minority view increases people’s subsequent willingness to take on an unpopular position themselves – in a study found that participants who had been exposed to a minority view in the colour judging task were much less likely to conform on the line judging task than were participants who had been exposed to a minority view in the first task Social Impact Theory  Social influences are the result of psychological forces acting on an individual and factors that influence this pressure include number, strength and closeness of the source of influence  Social impact theorists hypothesize that both majority and minority influences exert their influence via a similar process Leadership  Most important individual in the group  Issues of emergence and effectiveness have been examined from three different perspectives: trait, situational & interactionist  Trait approaches – focus on the characteristics of people who become leaders, situational approaches – focus on external factors that influence the selection and effectiveness of leaders & interactionist approaches investigate the combined effects of traits and situational factors Definitions of Leader & Leadership Effectiveness Defining a Leader 1) The person who holds a formal position of authority – easy to identify, ex/ prime minister 2) He or she is the person who is so named by most members – ask a group of friends to identify leader, the one with the most votes would be defined the leader 3) His or her impact on the group – the one who exerts the most influence on group members  Transformational leaders – individuals who produce fundamental changes in how members of a group view themselves Functions Fulfilled by Leaders  Expert, planner, executive, policy maker, performance appraiser, external representative, motivator, arbitrator, exemplar, counsellor  Some theorists suggest that various functions fulfilled by leaders fall into 2 major categories: task achievement & group maintenance  Task achievement function – involves all of the things necessary for group productivity (expert advice or training, how to achieve goals, distributing tasks to members, developing policies) FINAL EXAM – SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 2070 5  Group maintenance function – involves all of the things related to morale in the group, such as motivating members to remain committed, resolving disputes, counselling  In some groups, different individuals may emerge to fulfill these 2 functions: task leader & socioemotional leader Defining Leadership Effectiveness  Define an effective leader as one whose group is highly productive – when groups produce an output that can be quantified  Whose group members are very satisfied – those groups whose primary purpose is socializing  Someone who has a large impact n the group – moves the group significantly towards their goals  Most common way – in terms of group members’ ratings of the leader’s effectiveness  focus on whatever aspect of leadership they personally consider to be important Great Person Theory: Trait Approaches to Leadership  Great leaders are assumed to possess rare qualities that make them effective  Studies have found that people who emerge as leaders tend to be somewhat taller than non leaders, among men at least, leaders tend to be more intelligent  These characteristics (height and intelligence) predict not only leader emergence but also leader effectiveness – McCann calculates correlations between several past American presidents and found that those that were tall and intelligent received higher ratings of effectiveness  Height – tall people are more physically intimidating and therefore more likely to influence others successfully, stereotype exists such that tall individuals are viewed as more talented or more forceful than short individuals – results in them having more influence Gender and Leadership  More likely to be male than female  Eagly found that men relieved higher ratings or were elected as leaders in 74 of the 110 comparisons, small number of comparisons involved ratings of social leadership skills such as empathy or likeability, women always received higher ratings than men  Eagly and Karau suggested that men are more likely to merge as the task leader of a group whereas women are more likely to merge as the socioemotional leader of a group  Reflect gender stereotypes which characterize men as agentic (assertive and controlling) and women as communal (sympathetic and helpful)  Men are more likely to seek positions as task leader because the positions are more consistent with their gender role or perhaps group members are more likely to select men that women because they think that men will be more skilled or comfortable in the role  Karau, Makhijani & Eagly found that leaders performed better when the role demands of the leadership position matched their gender – men performed better when leader’s role called for traditionally masculine strengths (direct & control people) rather than when the role called for traditionally female strengths (ability to cooperate and get along with other people)  Eagly and Johnson found that men are more likely than women to adopt a controlling, autocratic leadership style whereas women are more likely than men to adopt an open, democratic leadership style Personality and Leadership  Judge and his colleagues found that leaders tend to be more extraverted (outgoing), more conscientious (reliable) and more open to new experiences (flexible)  Campbell and colleagues found that extraverts were rated as possessing more leadership skills than introverts but this only occurred when the groups were observed by a woman  Researchers speculated that extraverts are motivated more than introverts to make a favourable impression in situations where status hierarchies are salient (such as when an attractive woman is observing an all male-group) FINAL EXAM – SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 2070 6  Achievement motivation – reflects the extent to which people are attracted to, rather than frightened by, performance settings  People high in achievement motivation enjoy performance tasks and thrive on challenges, whereas those low in achievement motivation avoid performance settings and tend to choke in challenging situations  Affiliation motivation – reflects the extent to which people approach or avoid social settings  People high in affiliation motivation are comfortable in social settings and seek them out whereas those low are uncomfortable in social settings and try to avoid them  Sorrentino & Fields found that participants who were high in both achievement & affiliation motivation tended to receive the highest ratings and participants low in both achievement & affiliation tended to receive the lowest ratings  Individual who was high both was nominated as one of the two leaders by 34 out of 36 participants Talent or Talk  Sorrentino and Boutillier investigated the importance of quality and quantity of contributions to a group – found that the number of confederate’s comments had a large impact on ratings of his leadership skills, whereas the correctness of the confederate’s comments had less impact  Found effect of the quantity manipulation but no effect of the quality manipulation  People who participate a lot in group discussions may be seen as highly motivated to belong to the group even if their contribution is not always stellar Being in the Right Place at the Right Time: Situational Approaches to Leadership  Situational approach to leadership: external, situational factors can influence the selection of the leader  In a study done by Howell & Becker it was found that one of the two individuals sitting on one side of the table were more likely to be seen as a leader than on the three-person side opposite them  authors suggest this is bc communication tends to go back and forth across a table so the two person side would be directing comments to more people which would facilitate the perception that they are a leader  External threat is another situational factor that can affect leadership emergence – when groups perceive external threat its members look for strong leadership to deal with the threat , anxiety aroused by the threat motivates members to find an authority figure to guide them through the problem  Seniority in many organizations – those that have belonged to the group the longest are often seen as the ones who should serve as leaders, irrespective of their standing on relevant skills such as intelligence or motivation  Insko and colleagues assigned participants to a four person group on making simple products, over the course of 5 hrs, members were removed from the group and replaced with a new member – renewal continued for 9 generations – groups developed a seniority rule for assuming the role of leader  The longest serving group member became leader when the current leader was removed from the group – bc he had more experience, newer members tended to be unfamiliar to other members and were a risky choice for a leader, seniority was ambiguous and provided a simple rule for the orderly succession of leadership Person & Situation: Interactionist Approaches to Leadership  Interactionist Approach to Leadership: predicts that certain kinds of people are likely to emerge as leaders (or to be effective leaders) under one set of conditions whereas other kinds of people are likely to emerge as leaders under a different set of conditions  Many individuals can become leaders (or be effective leaders) if the appropriate situational factors are present FINAL EXAM – SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 2070 7  Task-oriented leader – concerned with performance and success of their group, want members to be productive  Relationship-oriented leader – primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships and morale in the group, they want group members to be happy  Fielder found that individuals who give extremely negative ratings to their least-preferred co-worker are task oriented bc they can’t see anything positive in a person who’s so hard to work with, but those individuals who give less negative ratings to their least preferred co-worker are relationship oriented bc they seem to find even the disagreeable person tolerable  Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: a theory identified by Fiedler, that predicts that task-oriented leaders will be more successful than relationship oriented leaders in groups where the situation is either very favourable or very unfavourable for the leader bc they push group members even when things are going well whereas relationship oriented would relax or give up, whereas relationship-oriented leaders will be more successful than task-oriented leaders in groups where the situation is mixed for the leader (where leader has little power but the group members like the leader) bc they are more skillfull at maintaining morale and motivation of group Intergroup Relations Acculturation  The process of cultural and psychological change that takes place as a result of contact between 2 or more cultural groups and their individual members  Occurs at a group level – such as when an ethnic group changes their traditions to better fit a new environment & at the individual level such as when individuals from a minority cultural group internalize values of the dominant cultural group into their personal identities  Theoretical models of acculturation have distinguished between four different goals that can be pursued by cultural groups who are in contact with one another: 1) Integration – refers to the goal of identifying with one’s own cultural group & also with the alternative culture  Canadian Policy 2) Seperation – refers to the goal of identifying only with one’s own cultural group and not at all with the alternative culture 3) Assimilation – refers to the goal of identifying only with the alternative culture and rejection one’s own cultural group  American policy 4) Marginalization – refers to situation where individuals lose their own identity but do nto feel connected to the alternative cultures  Safdar, Lay & Struthers found that respondents were more likely to maintain their Iranian culture when they identified strongly with their ethnic heritage and when they had close connections to their family  They had greater contact with the new Canadian culture when they had good skills in English & when they had Canadian friends who supported them  Reported better health when they had low frequency of life events and high levels of self esteem and perceived control Development & Escalation of Intergroup Conflict  Social identity states that we want to maintain a positive identity, including a positive view of the groups to which we belong – to achieve this we sometimes belittle members of outgroups & give preference to members of an ingroup, especially for those who identify strongly  Gawronski argues that people naturally want to differentiate between their ingroup and various outgroups which can lead them to assume that outgroups possess the opposite characteristics from those of the ingroup which can lead to negative views of the outgroups  Outgroup homogeneity effect – exaggeration of similarity within outgroups FINAL EXAM – SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 2070 8  Insko, Schopler and colleagues found that when participants represented a group, they were significantly more competitive and less cooperative than when they played as individuals – argued that intergroup situations elicit greater greed and greater fear of being exploited than do interpersonal situations  Social identity theory, differentiation, negative stereotypes about outgroups, the outgroup homogeneity effect and the tendency for intergroup situations to elicit competition are all factors that suggest that intergroup contexts may be predisposed to degenerate into conflict  Three factors that can escalate a minor conflict into a major one: threats, self presentation goals and dehumanization Threats  Threats often make us want to do exactly the opposite of what the other person is telling us to do as we feel threatened and angry that they are taking away our freedom  Leaves us feeling unhappy and upset, can leave seeds of discontent & anger – don’t like being controlled by threats but don’t see that our own use of threats are equally harmful  Deutsch & Krauss found in a simulation game that companies made significantly less when one company had the gate (unilateral threat condition ) than when there were no gates, made even LESS money when both companies had a gate (bilateral threat condition)  thus gates (threat) reduced company’s profits, and the more gates there were, the less profit was earned, changed the dynamics of the game such that cooperation was less likely and profits were reduced  When threats are used in conflict, the two parties stop communicating and try to intimidate one another instead of finding a constructive solution Self Presentation Goals  Two goals always present in interpersonal settings: appear likeable and appear competent  Another goal is to appear powerful or strong – bc other groups will be more likely to follow a powerful group’s recommendations, don’t want to look weak  Concerned about their image or reputation Dehumanizing the Enemy  Dehumanization – the process of perceiving members of a group as subhuman or inferior to members of one’s own group, it allows people to inflict pain and suffering on the group without worrying about the morality of their behaviour  Another perception is of seeing a target group as evil or malevolent and evil people deserve to be treated badly Cultural Differences in Conflict Escalation  Members of collectivistic cultures approach situations of interpersonal and intergroup conflict with a more cooperative, open-minded attitude than do members of individualistic cultures – reduce likelihood of a conflict escalating in collectivistic cultures  Wade Benzoni and colleagues found that Japanese participants were more likely to deal with a conflict by cooperating with other people in the dispute and by dividing resources equally among all claimants than were American participants  Gelfand and colleagues found that Japanese participants did not see their own behaviour in a dispute as fairer than the behaviour of other disputants whereas Americans showed a strong tendency to consider their own behaviour in the conflict to be fairer than their opponents Terrorism  Represents ultimate escalation tactic in a conflict, defined as actual or threatened violence against civilians for alleged political purposes  Its psychological impact far exceeds its material or physical impact  Reflects a desire to create fear and confusion rather to resolve an issue or conflict – goal is to bring anarchy to society, the breakdown of social control  Organizations are highly secretive FINAL EXAM – SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 2070 9  Military action is taken to reduce terrorist threat but the major problem is that civilians die in addition to terrorists and these deaths reinforce impressions that the country battling terrorism is selfish and aggressive – new terrorist recruits  Improving vigilance and security within one’s own country can offer some protection but it does not address the underlying problem - international actions are required  Plous and Zimbardo suggested increasing foreign aid to countries that are working actively to fight terrorism might be effective  Related strategy is to work for broad international consensus on issues of human rights so alliances can be built that will cooperate in the long-term battle against terrorism  Moghaddam argued that the only way to combat terrorism is to address the social problems that motivate terrorist actions – people join bc they’re frustrated at their inability to produce change via legitimate channels – MUST REDUCE THIS SENSE OF HOPELESSNESS by nourishing democracy around the world Reduction of Intergroup Conflict Communication  Most important factor  If the opposing groups do not exchange info and suggestions, it is very unlikely that a resolution satisfactory to both sides will be found  Deutsch and Krauss used the trucking game – in one study participants were forced to communicate and reduced the negative impacts of threats but only when just one companies had a gate, if both companies had a gate, forced communication was not enough to avoid conflict and poor outcomes  Researchers suggested that communication did not have stronger positive, constructive effects bc participants were not necessarily exchanging positive, constructive info – could use communication to deliver a threat  Subsequent study with the trucking game, participants were tutored in ways as to how to communicate fair proposals – results show that the tutored participants obtained significantly better outcomes than did the nontutored participants even when they both had gates  Communication leads the opposing side to generate ideas and strategies for how to cooperate  While discussing ideas for cooperation, group members may make public statements that commit them to cooperate  Can increase peoples confidence that the other side will communicate  Makes connections or similarities between the opponents more apparent Trust  Think that another person or group has good intentions and will not take advantage of them – critical factor influencing cooperation  Organizational researchers have found cooperative behaviours are more common in companies in which employees trust each other and management –put themselves in a vulnerable situation  Groups will generally be trusted less than individuals – intergroup settings elicit distrust  Easy to destroy trust and hard to create it – intergroup relations are often characterized by lack of trust, especially when groups have a long history of interaction  Conflictive Ethos – atmosphere of distrust and hatred, created by Arab-Israeli conflict in MiddleE  Ethos of Peace – atmosphere of acceptance and cooperation, to reduceconflict  Make a decision reversible (rather than final and unchangeable) which allows each side to withdraw if the other fails to cooperate – share important resources with understanding that if not met, decision will be reversed  Divide a significant cooperative move into many smaller and less risky moves which allows each side to minimize its losses if the other side fails to cooperate  Find an external group or authority who will supervise the planned cooperation, a well respected and powerful neutral party – example: UN FINAL EXAM – SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 2070 10 Unilateral Conciliatory Initiatives  Actions to reduce conflict that one group takes without any request from the opponent and without any explicit demands for concessions from the opponent  Implies a sincere motive for reconciliation – spontaneous and with no demands attached  Given the norm of reciprocity, opposing group is likely to feel that it should respond w. concession of its own  Takes courage and determination to perform a unilateral conciliatory initiative – side that takes the action puts itself at risk of exploitation  Actions are most effective when initiator is equal or greater in power than opponent Chapter 11 – Aggression & Violence Definitions & Varieties of Aggression  Aggression - observable behaviour that is intended to injure someone physically or psychologically  Violence – aggression that intended to cause extreme injury Hostile & Instrumental Aggression  Hostile Aggression – harm-doing that arises out of negative emotions such as anger, frustration or hatred, often impulsive rather than planned, and primary goal is to hurt the target  Instrumental Aggression – harm doing that is motivated by goals other than hurting the target, such as obtaining something of value, premeditated or planned rather than impulsive  Aggressive behaviours can be caused by several factors simultaneously – most acts reflect mixture of anger and desire to achieve distant goals Relational Aggression  Girls are more likely to rely on relational aggression  Behaviour that is intended to damage another person’s peer relationships, social exclusion  May leave no physical damage but it can inflict psychological dmage  Crick and colleages found that in the teacher’s assessment, boys were judged as engaging in more overt aggression than girls, girls were judged as engaging in more relational aggression than boys  even at young ages, children show important gender differences in forms of aggres  Pattern of results were not observed in the preschoolers ratings – children had not yet developed a reliable sense of assigning aggressive inclinations to their peers  One result of using social exclusion or spreading rumours is that others will come to dislike you  Crick and her colleagues found signs of social maladjustment among girls who used relational aggression and this continued into young adulthood, found that relational aggression among university students was associated with peer rejection and antisocial personality  Appears that aggressive behaviour can sometimes be associated with popularity  Rose, Swenson found that among older youths, both overt and relational aggression were positively related to popularity – can sometimes be cool and lead to increased rather than decreased peer acceptance Social Psychology in Your Life – Is Corporal Punishment Effective?  Spanking – refers to the hittong fo a child with an open hand usually on the extremities such as the buttocks, punish via the use of pain but without causing injury  Corporal punishment – the use of physical force with the intention of causing a child to experience pain but not injury for the purpose of correction or control of the child’s behaviour, encompasses spanking and the use of objects (paddles, belts)  Differ from physical abuse which is the intentional infliction of injury  Gershoff found that spanking a child is an effective way of achieving immediate compliance – this was the only positive effect of corporal punishment FINAL EXAM – SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 2070 11  Evidence indicates that such pun
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