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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Methodology.pdf

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Psychology 2070A/B

Chapter 2: Methodology January-27-14 8:41 AM Social Psychology: An Empirical Science HINDSIGHT BIAS: The tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could have predicted the outcome after knowing that it occurred  STUDY:  Students read a story based on World War I events  When asked how predictable the outcome was, they felt it was obvious all along  Students who read a story with a different ending also thought the ending was obvious all along - Well-developed set of methods to answer questions about social behavior - These methods are of three type: the observational method, the correlational method, and the experimental method Formulating Hypotheses and Theories THEORY: An organized set of principles that can be used to explain observed phenomena HYPOTHESIS: A testable statement or idea about the relationship between two or more variables Hypotheses Based on Personal Observations - The more people who witness an emergency, the less likely it is that any given individual will intervene — diffusion of responsibility OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: The precise specification of how variables are measured or manipulated - A summary of research methods: The Observational Method OBSERVATIONAL METHOD: The technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements of their behavior - This method varies according to the degree to which the observer actively participates in the scene ETHNOGRAPHY: The method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside without imposing any preconceived notions they might have INTERJUDGE RELIABILITY: The level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of data; by showing that two or more judges independently come up with the same observations, researchers ensure that the observations are not the subjective impressions of one individual Archival Analysis ARCHIVAL ANALYSIS: A form of the observational method whereby the researcher examines the accumulated documents, or archives, of a culture The Correlational Method CORRELATIONAL METHOD: The technique whereby researchers systematically measure two or more variables and assess the relation between them (i.e., how much one can be predicted from the other) CORRELATION COEFFICIENT: A statistic that assesses how well you can predict one variable based on another → A positive correlation means that increases in the value of one variable is associated with increases in the value of the other → A negative correlation means that increases in the value of one variable is associated with decreases in the value of the other → Can range from -1.00 to +1.00:  A correlation of 1.00 means that two variables are perfectly correlated  A correlation of 0 means that two variables are not correlated Surveys - The correlation method is often used in surveys SURVEYS: Research in which a representative sample of people are asked questions about their attitudes or behavior RANDOM SELECTION: A way of ensuring that a sample of people is representative of a population, by giving everyone in the population an equal chance of being selected for the sample Limits of the Correlational Method: Correlation Does Not Equal Causation - Correlation does not prove causation The Experimental Method: Answering Causal Questions - The only way to determine causal relations is with the experimental method EXPERIMENTAL METHOD: The method in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable (the one thought to have a causal effect on people's responses)  STUDY:  Participants take turns presenting their problems (only one person's microphone is on at a time)  One participant begins to experience a seizure  The size of the group made a difference in the participants' decision to help Independent and Dependent Variables INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: The variable a researcher changes or varies to see if it has an effect on some other variable DEPENDENT VARIABLE: The variable a researcher measures to see if it is influenced by the independent variable; the researcher hypothesizes that the dependent variable will be influenced by the level of the independent variable Internal Validity in Experiments - Keeping everything the same but the independent variable is referred to as internal validity RANDOM ASSIGNMENT TO CONDITION: The process whereby all participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment; through random assignment, researchers can be relatively certain that differences in the participants' personalities or backgrounds are distributed evenly across conditions Exam Notes Page 1 assignment, researchers can be relatively certain that differences in the participants' personalities or backgrounds are distributed evenly across c
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