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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Attitudes and Attitude Change.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2070A/B
Professor
Phills
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 6: Attitudes and Attitude Change February-26-14 4:29 PM The Nature and Origin of Attitudes ATTITUDE: An evaluation of a person, object, or idea - Can experience ambivalence, or "mixed feelings" - An attitude is made up of three components: 1) An affective component — emotional reactions toward the attitude object 2) A cognitive component — thoughts and beliefs about the attitude object, and 3) A behavioral component — actions or observable behavior toward the attitude object Where Do Attitudes Come From? Affectively Based Attitudes AFFECTIVELY BASED ATTITUDE: An attitude based primarily on people's emotions and feelings about the attitude object - Affectively based attitudes have three things in common: 1) They do not result from a rational examination of the issues; 2) They are not governed by logic; 3) They are often linked to people's values, so that trying to change them challenges those values Cognitively Based Attitudes COGNITIVELY BASED ATTITUDE: An attitude based primarily on a person's beliefs about the properties of an attitude object Behaviorally Based Attitudes BEHAVIORALLY BASED ATTITUDE: An attitude based primarily on observations of how one behaves toward an attitude object - Self-perception theory — under certain circumstances people don't know how they feel until they see how they behave Comparing Affective, Cognitive, and Behavioral Bases of Attitudes - If we dislike the group, our attitudes are likely to have a cognitive basis— specifically, the belief that the group threatens our value system - Attitudes toward groups that we like are apt to be based on our feelings toward that group (i.e., affect) - Different attitudes have different bases Explicit versus Implicit Attitudes - Once an attitude develops, it can exist at two levels: 1) EXPLICIT ATTITUDES: Attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report 2) IMPLICIT ATTITUDES: Attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times unconscious - Implicit attitudes are rooted more in people's childhood experiences, whereas explicit attitudes are rooted more in their recent experiences When Attitudes Predict Behavior - People's attitudes are poor predictors of their behavior The Theory of Planned Behavior THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR: A theory that the best predictors of a person's planned, deliberate behaviors are the person's attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control The Theory of Planned Behavior The Theory of Planned Behavior: Implications for Safer Sex - Even the most positive of attitudes toward condom use do not guarantee that people will practise safer sex— other variables must be taken into account as well Attitude Change Persuasive Communications and Attitude Change PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION: Communication (e.g., a speech or television advertisement) advocating a particular side of an issue YALE ATTITUDE CHANGE APPROACH: The study of the conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages, researchers in this tradition focus on "who said what to whom"— that is, on the source of the communication, and the nature of the communication, and the nature of the audience - Speakers who are credible, trustworthy, attractive, or likeable are more persuasive than those who are not - It has not been clear which aspects of persuasive communications are most important— that is, when one factor should be emphasized over another The Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion HEURISTIC-SYSTEMATIC PERSUASION MODEL: The theory that there are two ways in which persuasion communications can cause attitude change: people either process the merits of the arguments (known as systematic processing) or are swayed by factors that are peripheral to the message itself, such as "Experts are always right" (known as heuristic processing) Test 2 Notes Page 1 right" (known as heuristic processing) ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL: The theory that there are two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: thecentral route occurs when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication, and theperipheral route occurs when people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics (e.g., who gave the speech) - The key is whether people have the motivation and ability to pay attention to the facts The Elaboration Likelihood Model - People who base their attitudes on a careful analysis of the arguments are more likely to maintain this attitude over time, are more likely to behave consistently with this attitude, and are more resistant to counter-persuasion than people who base their attitudes on peripheral cues Fear and Attitude Change FEAR-AROUSING COMMUNICATION: A persuasive message that attempts to change people's attitudes by arousing their fears - If a moderate amount of fear is created, and if people believe that listening to the message will teach them how to reduce this fear, they will be motivated to analyze the message carefully and will likely change their attitudes via the central route - Humor can be an effective tool for reducing distress among people who find fear-producing messages especially threatening Advertising and Attitude Change Tailoring Advertisements to People's Attitudes - If an attitude is cognitively based, try to change it with rational arguments; if it is affectively based, try to change it using emotion Cultural Differenced in Advertising - American ads tended to emphasize individuality, self-improvement, and benefits of the product for the individual consumer, whereas Korean ads tended to emphasize the family, concerns about others, and benefits for one's social group Subliminal Advertising: A Form of Mind Control? SUBLIMINAL MESSAGES: Words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but that supposedly influence people's judgements, attitudes, and behaviors Debunking the Claims about Subliminal Advertising - There is no evidence that the types of subliminal messages used in everyday life have any influence on people's behavior Evidence for Subliminal Influence in the Lab - Some evidence for such effects in carefully controlled laboratory studies - Ads are more powerful when we can consciously perceive th
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