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Chapter 8

SocialPsych - Chapter8Notes.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2070A/B

Chapter Eight Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience Defining Conformity, Compliance and Obedience Terms refer to changes in behaviour caused by other people Conformity any change in behaviour caused by another person or group influence from other people o Ex. spectator at Vancouver Canucks game would boo at a bad play because other fans are booing Compliance a change in behaviour that is requested by another person or group others asked the person to act in such a way o Ex. supporter of the NDP agrees to put a sign on her lawn supporting the NDP because she was asked to by an official Obedience a change in behaviour that is ordered by another person or group acted in a way because others commanded him or her to do so o Ex. child cleans up their bathroom because he was ordered to by his parents Conformity encompasses compliance and obedience due to it refereeing to any behaviour that occurs as a result of others influence Conformity occurs when you are in a new or unusual situation and are looking at others in deciding what to do Compliance occurs because we are susceptible to requests of others Obedience starts during childhood when we are socialized to follow the demands of our parents and teachers Why Do We Conform? Occur for two reasons o Informational influence influence from other people that is motivated by desire to be correct and to obtain accurate information o Normative influence influence from other people that is motivated by a desire to gain rewards or avoid punishment We often want to please people (normative influence) whose judgement we seek (informational influence) Conformity: Doing as Others Do Sherifs Autokinetic Effect Studies Muzafer Sherif studied conformity as addressing the development of social norms Social norms a rule or guideline in a group or culture about what behaviours are proper and improper The Autokinetic Effect In a darkened room, a stationary point of light will appear to move Because...there is no other visual frame of reference is available to locate light Multigenerational Norms Norms can persist long after their original instigators are gone Aschs Length of Judgement Studies Effective at generating conformity pressure The Crutchfield Apparatus To improve efficiency, flexibility, and control Crutchfield Apparatus machine that consists of an electrical panel with several rows of lights; allows the efficient study of conformity by stimulating the responses of numerous hypothetical participants Stimulates the responses of other people All participants can be treated as crucial participants Has high degree of experimental control Participants showed conformity to the judgements of others The Nature of the Task The amount of conformity depends on the feature of the judgement task o Ambiguity of the task: conformity is more likely when tasks are ambiguous o Difficulty of the task Can increase conformity because people are uncertain of the answer Can reduce conformity because it is okay to differ from other peoples answers Ambiguous or difficult tasks exert informational and normative influence, where clear and easy tasks only normative influence occurs Individual Differences Not everyone conforms People who are independent have a higher motivation to achieve and have a higher leadership ability than those who are likely to conform Independent people: o Care less about getting approval from others o Less authoritarian o Less conscientious People with high self-esteem are more likely to conform More confident in their judgements and less influenced by others Correlate weakly with conformity Conformity in children increased during elementary school, peaks in grade 9, and declines up to university years Conformity decreases as age increases Effects of Group Size Asch conformity increases as the size of the group varies from 1 to 3 members, but no increase on groups larger than 3 Herard, Wilhelmy, Conolley conformity rises as groups grew from 1 to 5 members, but no impact on groups larger than 6 Large groups exert more conformity pressure than small groups How to Make Conformity Disappear Two methods reduce the level of conformityo Private responses and reduction when judgements were anonymous rather than face to face Conformed publicly because of normative pressure o Break up the unanimity of the group eliminates the yielding majority Conforming in public Cultural Differences in Conformity Individualism Vs. Collectivism People from individualist cultures are less likely to conform than those from collectivist cultures Strong sense of self is associated with low rates of conformity Culture predicted participants conformity more than group size did Individual Differences in Independent vs. Interdependent Self Concepts Individualist cultures independent self-concepts Collectivist cultures interdependent self-concepts People whose self self-concepts are independent are less likely to conform than people whose self-concepts are interdependent Gender Differences in Conformity Small overall gender difference in conformity Women conform slightly more than men do...but also men can conform more than many women o Due to researche
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