Psychology 2075 Chapter 7: 2075 - Chapter 7 Notes

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Psychology 2075 Chapter 7: Contraception and Abortion
Hormonal Methods
Hormonal methods of contraception are highly effective and come in a number of
forms: the pill, the patch, the vaginal ring, implants, and injections
The Combination Pill
Combination birth control pills: contain a combination of estrogen and progestin
How It Works
The pill works mainly by preventing ovulation
Effectiveness
Failure rate: the pregnancy rate occurring when using a particular contraceptive
method; the percentage of women who will be pregnant after a year of use of the
method
Effectiveness is 100 minus the failure rate
We can also talk about two kinds of failure rate: failure rate for perfect users and the
failure rate for typical users
Combination pills are one of the most effective methods of birth control
If a woman forgets to take a pill, she should take it as soon as she remembers and take
the next one at the regular time
Side Effects
Blood clotting, it may aggravate some already existing cancers, such as breast cancer
The pill increases the amount of vaginal discharge and the susceptibility to vaginitis
Women on the pill have an increased susceptibility to chlamydia and gonorrhea
There may be some psychological effects including irritability and depression and
changes in sexual desire
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages:
o Close to 100% effective if used properly, does not interfere with intercourse, not
messy, reduces amount of menstrual flow and cramps, iron deficiency anemia is
less likely, can clear up acne, has protective effect against endometriosis and
ovarian and endometrial cancer
Disadvantages:
o Cost, they place entire burden of contraception on the woman, taking them
correctly is a little complicated, provide no protection against STIs
Reversibility
When a woman wants to become pregnant, she simply stops taking pills after the end of
one cycle
Drug Interactions
It can have interactions with other prescription drugs
Other Kinds of Pills
Triphasic pill: a birth control pill containing a steady level of estrogen and three phases
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Progestin-only pills contain only a low dose of progestin and no estrogen, and were
designed to avoid the estrogen-related side effects
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o Produce very irregular menstrual cycles
o Also useful for women who are breastfeeding and cannot use combination pills
because they reduce milk production
The Patch
The patch contains the same hormones as combination birth control pills but is
administered through the skin
Lasts for 7 days, so the woman places a new one on once a week for three weeks, and
then has a patch-free week
Advantage is that women using it do not have to remember to take a pill every day
The Vaginal Ring
The vaginal ring is a flexible, transparent ring made of plastic and filled with the same
hormones as those in the combination pill, at slightly lower doses
It remains in place for 21 days after which she removes it and goes ring-free for 7 days
Emergency Contraception
In Canada, its brand name if Plan B
Emergency contraception is between 75 and 89 percent effective
Implants
Implants are thin rods or tubes containing progestin
They are iserted uder the ski i a oa’s ar ad are effetie for three years
Depo-Provera Injections
Depo-provera is a progestin administered by injection
The injections must be repeated every three months for maximum effectiveness
How It Works
Depo-provera works like the other progestin-only methods
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages:
o Does not interfere with lovemaking, requires less reliance on memory, available
for women who cannot use combination pill
Disadvantage:
o Most users experience amenorrhea
Side Effects
Can result in irreversible bone loss after only two years on the drug and should only be
used by women who are unable to use other methods
Reversibility
The method is reversible simply by not getting another injection
The IUD and IUS
Intrauterine device (IUD): a plastic device sometimes containing metal or a hormone
that is inserted into the uterus for contraceptive purposes
How It Works
The foreign body in the uterus creates an environment that is toxic to both sperm and
eggs
Effectiveness
The IUD is extremely effective
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Side Effects
The most common side effects of the copper T are increased menstrual cramps,
irregular bleeding, and increased menstrual flow
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages:
o Effectiveness, does not interrupt intercourse, woman does not have to
remember to use it
Reversibility
She simply has a physician remove the device, she can become pregnant immediately
Cervical Caps and the Sponge
Cervical Caps
FemCap: a method of birth control involving a rubber cap that fits snugly over the cervix
It can be inserted several hours before sexual activity and left in place for up to 48 hours
It should be used with a spermicide or one of the new microbicides
How It Works
Blocks the entrance to the uterus so that sperm cannot swim up into it
Side Effects
The possible irritation of the vagina or the penis; this is caused by the cream or jelly
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages:
o Few side effects, does not interfere with sensations or sensitivity of either
partner, provides some protection against STIs such as chlamydia
Disadvantage:
o She must remember to put it in ahead of time or have it and a supply of cream or
jelly with her when she needs it
Reversibility
If a woman wants to become pregnant, she simply stops using the cervical cap
The Sponge
Contraceptive sponge: a contraceptive method made of polyurethane that contains a
spermicide and is placed over the cervix
Effective for 24 hours
Condoms
The Male Condom
It may be made of latex, polyurethane, or the intestinal tissue of lambs
Have become increasingly popular because they help protect against STIs
How It Works
The condom catches the semen and thus prevents it from entering the vagina
Side Effects
The condom has no side effects, except that some users are allergic to latex
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages:
o The only contraceptive available for men, cheap, readily available, provide
protection against many STIs
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