Psychology 2075 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Prostatitis, Tamoxifen, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

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Chapter 4 Psych
empirically observable data
- use theory for understanding, prediction and control
- theory is a value (positive, negative or neutral)
- descriptive sex research “how many sexual partner have you had?”
• no clear single best answer to collect sex research
• physiological measures measure the brain
- Monica Moore went to singles bars and watched behaviors that women used that seemed to attract specific men into their
orbit
• Type I glance (finding washroom or a clock)
• Type II glance
• Type III glance
- descriptive sex research taking a photograph of what is going on
- Correlational Sex Research
• male attractive behaviors increased shortly at the end of the „last call‟ at the bar
• time and a single bar has a correlation
- Experimental Sex Research focused on cause and effect
• essential to randomize participants in conditions
• randomly assign participants to set everyone equal and not biased
• experiments tell us whether A can cause B
- sexual intercourse dropped on week 2 and 4 because they watched the same erotic film so they got bored, when they first
saw new erotic films (week 1 and 3) more sexual intercourse between couples
- went up for neutral films for sexual intercourse when watched the second time
Sexual Anatomy: The Organ Recital
Appearance of the Hymen is not Definitive
- lots of way to change the appearance of the hymen (like horseback riding)
Female External Genitalia: Vulvar Vestibulitis
- General name for female genital pain is dyspareunia
- Vaginismus shuts, intercourse painful
Female Genital Multination/Cutting
- Type 1 clitoridectomy
- Type 2 removal of the clitoral hood
- Type 3 infibulation, cutting out the clitoris and stitching shut
- not done hygienically, can interfere with sexual function,
*cosmetic vaginal tightening doesn‟t appear to impair function, whereas the female genital cutting are concerned that it
generally does impair function
- 91.6% were satisfied with surgery (Michael Goodman study)
Female Internal Genitalia
- fallopian tube is fragile and its narrowest margin is as thick as a piece of spaghetti
- cervix lower end of uterus
- pelvic inflammatory disease causes infertility
- endometriosis, over grown of meteriosis tissue
Cervix and Cervical Cancer
- cervical cancer has drop 80% because of pap tests
- 100% due to HPV (not 95% like stated in textbook)
- Cerverix prevents HPV 16 and 18, Gardasil prevents HPV 16 and 18 and genital warts
- 80% of Canadians get annual pap tests, 20% are the ones who get cervical cancer
- Abby Lippmann wrote an article on MacLean‟s magazine article on HPV
Breasts and Breast Cancer
- breast feeding is highly recommended, perfect food for an infant
- what could be wrong with self examination? Women think they have a problem and go under unnecessary screenings
- mammography for women over the age of 50, start early if you have a family history of breast cancer
- the only difference for women with larger breasts is that they have more fat
- BRCA1 BRCA2 testing breast cancer caused by genetic imperfections (breast cancer genes 1 and 2), is most common in
Jewish women who‟s geographic origin is in Europe, and many Jewish women from a European background and history of
breast cancer will choose to get BRCA1 and 2 testing, a test that is linked to credible interventions, consider using
Tamoxifen (drug that reduces risk of breast cancer for women in BRCA1 and 2), BRCA1 and 2 families undergo prophylactic
surgery is preventive removal of breasts and ovaries
- breast cancer treatment involve lumpectomy
- one in nine women will get breast cancer by the age of 80
- more common cause of death in women is cardiovascular disease
Sexual Function Aspects of Female External Genitalia
- indirect labial traction and penile intromission cause implications for coital orgasm
- clitoris is too north of the vagina, penile intromission is in the south, produces “indirect labial traction”, poor stimulation of
orgasm
“G-Spot” inch under pubic bone in vagina, related to the Skene‟s Glands, linked to female ejaculation
- Babenberg instead of G-spot? Dogs name
- separate G-spot from female ejaculation (Hines study 2001), little evidence for a location of the G-spot
- Skene‟s glands (squirting of the woman)
- condoms effective in preventing HIV
Male Genital Anatomy
- glands tip of penis
- Frenulum
Dr. Fisher dug of a study of the life span of Korean eunuchs:
“Is there a tradeoff between reproductive capacity and lifespan?”
- somatic competition theory: biological resources invested in either body upkeep or reproduction
- Korean eunuchs lived far longer than socioeconomic status matched noneunchs
Prostate
- Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy half of men over 50 and increasing age will experience this, access growth, prostate
grows and grows, gets bigger as men age, clamps down on the urethra, what happens it get harder to empty bladder, BPH
can produce LUTS (lower urinary tract symptoms)
- Prostatitis treated with antibiotics, hurts when you pee, inflammation
Prostate Cancer
- 90% of men that are 80 years old on autopsy will have prostate cancer, will die with it but not because of it
- men over the age 40 or 50 (depending family history) will have to do a digital rectal examination (finger in prostate), men
are urged to get PSA testing (prostate specific autogenic) is the best test but not specific
- biopsy shows cancerous cells
- PCA3 testing, PSA has been dropped as a screening test in Canada
Circumcision
- circumcision doesn‟t impair function
- in Canada primary reason for circumcision is they want them to look like their father, and hygiene reason
- 60% reduction in HIV infection in circumcised men
- 3 studies in Africa have been successful for HIV, but has been stopped in the middle because it works
American Pediatric Association Statement 2012: circumcision has improved health benefits, but not enough to make it
routine (always happen), but enough that insurance companies have to cover it
Sexual Medicine: 2007 African men have been interviewed (circumcised or not), men indicated that circumcision did not
impair sexual function
- Dr. Fisher studied women to small, medium and large penises and asked how they liked it. “The Bigger the Better? Arousal
and Attribution Responses to Erotic Stimuli that Depict Different Size Penises”
- “Great White North Study”
- made an erotic story about small, big and medium sized men
paper published in 2006, 85% of women were satisfied with their partners penis size
- men with bigger penis‟s thought of themselves better in attractiveness, in a swimsuit and face