Psychology 2075 Chapter 17: WEEK 20 READINGS

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Published on 14 Mar 2017
Human Sexuality
- Has replaed rape i the Caadia legal sste
- Sexual assault is an act of power and dominance, rather than an act of sex
- I Caada, people ho are ifeted ith HIV a e harged ith seual assault if the do’t dislose their HIV
status to their partners before engaging in sexual behaviour
- In Canada, there are 3 levels of sexual assault
1. Level 1
- Any form of sexual activity forced on another person
- Non-consensual
- Involves minor physical injury or no injury to the victim
2. Level 2
- A seual assault i hih the perpetrator uses or threates to use a eapo, threates the iti’s frieds or
family members, causes bodily harm
3. Level 3
- A seual assault that ouds, ais, or disfigures the iti or edagers the iti’s life
Incidence in Canada
- The Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR) tracks the number of substantiated sexual assaults reported to
police, and the General Social “ure G““ asks Caadias hether the’e ee itis of seual assault,
including assaults they may not have reported to police
- Majority (98%) of these sexual assaults were classified as level 1
- 4% decline from 2012-2013
- Brennan and Taylor-Butts (2008): for level 3 sexual assaults that are reported to police, victimization rates are
four times greater for women than for men
- Highest rates for sexual assaults reported to police occurred in Nunavut
- In more than half of 2009 incidents, the perpetrators were friends, acquaintance or neighbours of the victims
- Only about one in ten sexual assaults in Canada are reported to the police
- Ontario University survey: % of feales studets reported that the’d ee fored  phsial threats to have
se, ad % said the’d ee foud  eral threats to hae se
- I Caada, there’s a risig iidee of drug-facilitated sexual assault
- Du Mont et al (2010): drug-facilitated sexual assaults in Ontario found that many of the victims had ingested
cannabinoids such as marijuana (40%), cocaine (32%), or amphetamines (13%)
Stranger sexual assault
- Committed by an assailant (or assailants) previously unknown to the victim
- The stranger often selects a target who seems vulnerable
- Brennan and Taylor-Butts (2008): the victims and perpetrators were strangers in only 18% of the incidents
reported in Canada that year
Acquaintance sexual assult
- Brennan and Taylor-Butts (2008): 82% of sexual assault victims in 2007 knew their perpetrators in some way
- Stats Canada: 28% of sexual assault victims in 2002 were done by family members
- Much less likely to be reported by police
Date sexual assault
- One of the most common forms of acquaintance sexual assault occurs within the dating context
- McAnulty (2012): as many as one in four reports having been forced to have sexual intercourse by a date
- Some men may assume that women who frequent places like singles bars are expressing tacit agreement to
have sex with men who show interest in them
Gang sexual assault
- Exercise of power appears to be the major motive behind gang assaults
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- Sexual assaults involving groups of assailants tend to be more vicious than individual assaults
- Gidycz and Koss (1990): sexual assaults involving groups of assailants tend to be more vicious than individual
Sexual assault against males
- Sexual assault of men is more common than many people assume
- O’“ullia et al 998): one-fifth of the e reported that the’d ee oered ito haig se durig the
previous year
- Sarrel and Masters (1982): reported  ases of e ho’d ee seuall assaulted  oe
- Most sexual assaults against men are committed by other men
- Most are heterosexual. Their motives tend to include domination and control, revenge and retaliation, sadism
and degradation
- Males can also be assaulted in college sports hazing rituals
Sexual assault against gay and bisexual males
- Ratner et al (2003): asked 358 19-35-year-old ga ad iseual e if the’d eer ee fored ito uated
se. % reported that the’d ee oered or fored ito se efore the age of 
Partner or marital sexual assault
- Partner sexual assault is probably more common than date rape, because a sexual relationship has already been
- Partnered sexual assault is more likely to go unreported
- Sexual coercion often occurs within a pattern of violence and physical intimidation
- Melanie Beres (2007): found that consent has been conceptualized and defined in numerous ways
- Most men and women have nonverbal means of asking for and giving sexual consent
- Jozkoski ad Huphre’s : offer a critique of current sexual consent promotion frameworks and provide
suggestions for future programs to reduce sexual assault on campus. He argues that people should endorse a
soioultural approah that fouses o the folloig fators…
Promote a more collaborative effort of a couple to ensure positive, consensual sex
College and university educational programs, as well as elementary and secondary school
programs should address gender inequality
Educational programs at all levels should teach awareness of media messages objectifying
Sexual assault prevention education should focus on deconstructing the sociocultural
determinants of sexual violence, including institutions of male domination and entitlement
Social attitudes and myths
- Women want to be assaulted
- Asian students as well as male students are more accepting of these myths
- Many observers contend that our society encourages sexual assault by socializing males into socially and
sexually dominant roles
- Byers and Eno (1991): in New Brunswick, researchers compared students who believed in strictly traditional
gender roles with students who held less rigid attitudes
Me ho egaged i oerie se ere ore likel to hold ore traditioal ies of oe’s
roles, and more likely to hold coercion-supportive beliefs
Me ith traditioal ies ere ore likel to igore parter’s o said the did’t at to hae
Traditionalists express a greater likelihood of committing sexual assault, were more accepting of
violence against women and were more likely to blame their victims for assaults
- Evolutionary psychology can account for the role of male sexual competitiveness in sexual assault men were
obligated to compete with one another for mating opportunities
- Koss (2003): says males can choose not to be aggressive
Sexually coercive men
- Groth and Birnbaum (1979): anger and power are the basic motivations for sexual assault
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