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Chapter 4

Psychology 2075 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Spermatocyte, Orgasm, Perineum

Course Code
PSYCH 2075

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Human Sexuality Chapter 4: Sexual Anatomy
Genital Self-Image
o Our attitudes and feelings about our genitals
o Feelings may depend on cultural norm (too big/too small)
o May affect sexual well-being
o Woman who report negative feelings also report low self-esteem during
intercourse, less satisfaction, more sexual problems
o Cosmetic surgery for genitals is growing trend (vulval=female external genitals not
vagina= internal organs)
o Vulval surgery= woman feel will make it more beautiful
o Vaginoplasty= tightening
o Hoodectomy= removing clitoral hood
o Labia minora reduction/re-modeling
o Pubis tuck= removing excess skin to elevate pubis
o Most popular= Toronto Trim reduction of clitoral/labial hood
o Men undergo penis enlargement= cosmetic enlargement, not actual
o Controversial because people do it because they feel it doesn’t fit cultural norms and
because marketing promises better sex without mentioning risks
Female Sexual Organs
o 2 categories= external organs and internal organs
o Consist of mons pubis (hair), inner lips, outer lips, vaginal opening= vulva
The Clitoris
o Sensitive organ important for female sexual reponse
o Consists of tip (knob of tissue), shaft of 2 corpora cavernosa (spongy bodies, extend
inch into the body), 2 crura (longer spongy bodies deep in the body, from tip under
o Clitoris homologous to penisdevelop form same embryonic tissue
o both have corpora cavernosa, they are erectile kuz fill with blood
o Rich supply of nerve endings, hence it feels good to be stroked
o Unique= no reproductive function, all other sex organs serve function
The Mons
o ―mountain of venus‖= round fatty pad of tissue covered with pubic hair
o on top of pubic bones

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The Labia
o outer lips= labia majora fatty tissue both sides of vaginal opening, covered with
o inner lips= labia minora 2 hairless folds of skin between outer lips along edge of
opening, form the clitoral hood
o both are supplied with nerve endings, important in sexual arousal
o Bartholin Glands= inside inner lips, function unknown, can become infected
o Fourchette= inner lips come together behind opening
o Perineum= skin between opening and anus
o Introitus= vaginal opening
o Urethra= where urine comes out is midline between clit and opening
The Vulvar Vestibule
o Vestibule= entranceway enclosed by inner lips, contains opening to vagina and
o Lots of nerve endings
o Vulvar vestibulitis= vestibule gets red and hurts when touched
o Unlike males where everything is easily seen externally woman’s much less visible
o Important to take a mirror either sitting or standing and become aware of own body
The Hymen
o Cherry‖/ ―Maidenhead‖= thin membrane partially covers opening
o Different types of hymen but usually have holes for menstrual blood
o May be broken or stretched during first intercourse may cause bleeding/pain
o If woman is worried she can have doctor break it or she can break it by inserting
o During Middle Ages in Europe Lord might claim right to ―deflower‖ peasant bride
before passing her on to her husband (Droit de seigneur- right of the lord)
o Evidence of virginity
o Paradaing the bloody bed sheets after honeymoon meant that she was a virgin custom
of the Kurds of Middle East
o But some girls are born without or tear during active sports like horseback riding
Internal Organs
o Consist of the vagina, vestibular bulbs, Skene’s glands, uterus, ovaries and pair of
fallopian tubes

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The Vagina
o Tube-shaped organ where penis is inserted during sex and receives ejaculation
o Also known as birth canal
o Resting/unaroused state= 8-10cm (3-4 inches) long and tilts slightly backwards
o Bottom connects with opening (introitus) at top connects with cervix (lower part of
o During unarousal deflated balloon, when aroused inflated balloon to make room for
o 3 layers in vagina wall:
o inner layer= vaginal mucosa mucous membrane similar to lining of mouth
o middle layer= muscular
o outer layer= covering
o they are elastic, although with age become less flexible and thinner
o nerve supply = lower 1/3 near opening
o inner 2/3= no nerve endings insensitive except to feelings of deep pressure
o G spot= sensitive spot on front vaginal wall not as sensitive as lips/clitoris
o Introitus (opening) is what is too tight or too loose
o Different in appearance between never had a baby (Nulliparous) and vulva of
woman who as (Parous)
o Surrounding vagina, urethra and anus= Pelvic Floor Muscles
o Pubococcygeal muscle= stretched during childbirth or weak, but can be
strengthened through exercises (contracts muscle ten times in a row 6x/day)
recommended by sex therapists
The Vestibular Bulbs
o 2 organs shape of a pea pod
o either side of vaginal wall, near entrance under inner lips
o erectile tissue near crura
The Skene’s Gland/ Female Prostrate
o paraurethral gland
o between wall of urethra and wall of vagina
o ducts empty into urethra
o area of erotic sensitivity on vaginal wall
o some experience secretion of fluids upon orgasm, some don’t
o this is organ dubbed G spot responsible for female ejaculation
The Uterus
o womb
o size and shape of upside down pear
o narrow lower 3rd= cervixopens into vagina
o top= fundus main part of the body
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