Psychology 2075 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Magnus Hirschfeld, Human Sexual Activity, Havelock Ellis

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2075
Professor
Page:
of 7
Sexuality in perspective 9/16/2012 10:07:00 AM
Why study sex?
o Curiosity
o An important force in many peoples lives
o People experience concerns about their sexual functioning
and want to learn more about sex
Sex and gender
The term sex is used ambiguously, it can refer to practicing sex or
it can refer to your gender
Biologist definition of sex: any behaviour the increases the
likelihood of gametic union- emphasizes the reproductive function
of sex
Alfred Kinsey defined sex as behaviour that leads to orgasm
o The problems with this definition are if one person does not
experience an orgasm, does that mean that they did not
engage in sexual behaviour? Or if a person experiences an
orgasm will having oral, is that considered sex?
Sexual behaviour: behaviour that produces arousal and increases
the chance of orgasm
Influences of sexuality
Religion
o Each religion has different views on what is right and what is
wrong with respect to sexuality
o The ancient Greek openly acknowledged both homosexuality
and heterosexuality. They saw humans as double creatures,
and the god split them in half. People from then on when
looking for the missing pieces ( if double male, looking for the
missing male, if male/female, looking for the opposite fo what
you are)
o Fifteenth century Christians, thought that wet dreams were
caused by intercourse with tiny spiritual creatures. Wet
dreams, sexual dysfunction and sexual lust were seen as
witchcraft
Science
o Havelock Ellis; believed that women; like men, are sexual
creatures, believed that sexual deviations from the norm are
harmless and urged society to accept them
o Richard von Kraft-Ebing: studied pathological sexuality, his
research was neither objective nor tolerant and collected
more than 200 case histories
o Magnus Hirschfeld: founded the first sex research institute
and administered the first large scales sex survey form 10000
people with over 130 questions
o In the 1940’s more research led to more open and public
discussion of human sexuality
o The study of sex requires joint efforts from biologists,
anthropologist, sociologist and physicians
The media
o Only 2 percent of sexual scenes reference to safe sex- is
increasing
o 47 percent of Canadians think there s to much reference to
sex on T.V
o it is believe that the media can have three types of influence
cultivation: refers to the notion that people begin to
think that what they see on T.V and in other media is
the mainstream of what happens in our culture
agenda-setting: new reporters decide what tor eport
and what to emphasize- when they emphasize things
like politicians sexual dalliances, they are suggesting
that these matters are important
social learning: the idea that media provide role models
for who we imitate
o kids that watch more sexual T.V are more likely to engage in
sex when they are younger
o many people engage in sex online
Cross cultural perspectives on sexuality
Culture refers to traditional ideas and values transmitted to
members of the group by symbols. These ideas and values then
serve as the basis for patterns of behaviour observed in the group
Ethnocentrism tends to influence peoples understanding of human
sexual behaviour
Most people tend to believe that their sexual behaviour is the only
pattern in existence, but in all actuality, there are many different
views on sexuality
No society has left sexuality totally unregulated, for example, Incest
taboo: a regulation prohibiting sexual interaction between close
blood relatives, such as brother and sister or father and daughter.
Also forceful sex such as rape
Variations in sexual techniques
Techniques vary from were you are in the world, some people view
kissing as one of the basic sexual techniques, but some don’t
understand it
Pain is also something that varies, in some cultures it is normal to
bite off your partners eyebrows, or bite them to the point of
drawing blood
The frequency of intercourses also changes, some only have sex
once or twice a month while married, in some other areas of the
world, they have sex five or six times a day
o Masturbation: self stimulation of the genitals to produce
sexual arousal. Some societies encourage kids to masturbate,
while in others it is forbidden, and if a women is caught
masturbating, she may be beaten
o Premarital and extramarital sex: in some societies it is
common for kids to engage in sex before marriage, while in
others, it is frowned upon
o Sex with same sex partners: there are three general rules
that seem to emerge
1. No matter how the society feels about
homosexuality, the behaviour always occurs in some
individuals
2. Males are more likely to engage in same sex sexual
activity than females
3. Same sex sexual activity is never the predominate
form for adults in any of the societies studied

Document Summary

Why study sex: curiosity, an important force in many peoples lives, people experience concerns about their sexual functioning and want to learn more about sex. The term sex is used ambiguously, it can refer to practicing sex or it can refer to your gender. Biologist definition of sex: any behaviour the increases the likelihood of gametic union- emphasizes the reproductive function of sex. Sexual behaviour: behaviour that produces arousal and increases the chance of orgasm. Religion: each religion has different views on what is right and what is wrong with respect to sexuality, the ancient greek openly acknowledged both homosexuality and heterosexuality. They saw humans as double creatures, and the god split them in half. Wet dreams, sexual dysfunction and sexual lust were seen as witchcraft. Cultivation: refers to the notion that people begin to think that what they see on t. v and in other media is the mainstream of what happens in our culture.